According to Bennasi and Overson (2014), Feedback in the classroom can be defined as “information allowing a learner to reduce the gap between what is evident currently and what could or should be the case”.
Types of Feeback
INFORMAL FEEDBACK can occur at any times as it is something that emerges spontaneously in the moment or during action. Therefore informal feedback requires the building of rapport with students to effectively encourage, coach or guide them in daily management and decision-making for learning.
FORMAL FEEDBACK is planned and systematically scheduled into the process. Usually associated with assessment tasks.
FORMATIVE FEEDBACK The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning.
CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK This type of feedback is specific, issue-focused and based on observations. There are four types of constructive feedback:
Negative feedback / Positive feedback / Negative feed-forward / Positive feed-forward
Another Feedback Definition
The British Councils states that feedback is information a teacher or another speaker, including another learner, gives to learners on how well they are doing, either to help the learner improve specific points, or to help plan their learning. Feedback can be immediate, during an activity, or delayed, at the end of an activity or part of a learning programme and can take various forms.
+ Ask learners for self assessment.
+ Tell the behaviour / performance you observe and how it differs from the one you expect.
+ ask learners how they could improve and what actions they can take.
+Praise them for their strenghts and areas of good performance.
+Tell them the behaviour / performance you observe and how it differs from the one you expect.
+Praise the ability to adapt and use example from the past of their own possitive performance / behaviour.
Connecting concepts together from past to future, Focusing on:
+ Present observed behaviour / performance.
+ Past positive behavoiur / performance.
+ Future behaviour /performance expected.
Three Feedback questions:
1. What is the goal?
2. what progress is being made?
3. What is the next step?
- Develop learners awarness on the importance of feedback during their learning process.
- Develop mutual learning goals with the language learners that can be adapt with the institution curricula.
- Schedule feeback sessions.
- Develop learners self-assessment autonomy.
- Develop standandarized feedback
- Be specific on learners on what you expect from your students for the course.
- Focus on modifiable behaviour.
- Try to give private feedback when is needed.
- Use printed documents like rubrics for general performance.
- Give notes and small certificates for learners with remarkable achievements.
- Set individual goals for your learners, not everyone learns at the same pace.