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Feedback and Techniques Cheat Sheet by

Feeback Definition

According to Bennasi and Overson (2014), Feedback in the classroom can be defined as “infor­mation allowing a learner to reduce the gap between what is evident currently and what could or should be the case”.

Types of Feeback

INFORMAL FEEDBACK can occur at any times as it is something that emerges sponta­neously in the moment or during action. Therefore informal feedback requires the building of rapport with students to effect­ively encourage, coach or guide them in daily management and decisi­on-­making for learning.
FORMAL FEEDBACK is planned and system­ati­cally scheduled into the process. Usually associated with assessment tasks.
FORMATIVE FEEDBACK The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instru­ctors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning.
CONSTR­UCTIVE FEEDBACK This type of feedback is specific, issue-­focused and based on observ­ations. There are four types of constr­uctive feedback:
Negative feedback / Positive feedback / Negative feed-f­orward / Positive feed-f­orward

Another Feedback Definition

The British Councils states that feedback is inform­­ation a teacher or another speaker, including another learner, gives to learners on how well they are doing, either to help the learner improve specific points, or to help plan their learning. Feedback can be immediate, during an activity, or delayed, at the end of an activity or part of a learning programme and can take various forms.

Feedback Techniques

+ Ask learners for self assess­ment.
+ Tell the behaviour / perfor­mance you observe and how it differs from the one you expect.
+ ask learners how they could improve and what actions they can take.
Sandwiich Technique
+Praise them for their strenghts and areas of good perfor­mance.
+Tell them the behaviour / perfor­mance you observe and how it differs from the one you expect.
+Praise the ability to adapt and use example from the past of their own possitive perfor­mance / behaviour.

Bridge Technique

Connecting concepts together from past to future, Focusing on:
+ Present observed behaviour / perfor­mance.
+ Past positive behavoiur / perfor­mance.
+ Future behaviour /perfo­rmance expected.

Three Feedback questions:

1. What is the goal?
2. what progress is being made?
3. What is the next step?




- Develop learners awarness on the importance of feedback during their learning process.
- Develop mutual learning goals with the language learners that can be adapt with the instit­ution curricula.
- Schedule feeback sessions.
- Develop learners self-a­sse­ssment autonomy.
- Develop standa­nda­rized feedback
- Be specific on learners on what you expect from your students for the course.
- Focus on modifiable behaviour.
- Try to give private feedback when is needed.
- Use printed documents like rubrics for general perfor­mance.
- Give notes and small certif­icates for learners with remarkable achiev­ements.
- Set individual goals for your learners, not everyone learns at the same pace.

Feeback on ESL



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