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Grammer Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Parts of a Speech

names of a person, place or thing
ex.\\ mother school, banana
takes the place of a noun
ex.\\ she, we, it
describes or modifies a noun
ex.\\ nice, arrogant, awesome
indicated an action or state of being
ex.\\ sing, run, is, need
modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb
ex.\\ slowly, repeat­edly, very
shows the relati­onship of a noun to a verb, adjective or another noun
ex.\\ on, by, to, in, of, for, from
connects other words, phrases or sentences
ex.\\ because, and, or, but
calls attention to what is being said
ex.\\ Yes! Wow! Yikes!

Types of Sentences

makes a statement
ex.\\ The ice cream is in the freezer.
asks a question
ex.\\ Where are the car keys?
gives commands or requests
ex.\\ Hand in your assign­ment.
expresses a strong feeling
ex.\\ I've been robbed!


Question Mark (?)
ends an interr­ogative sentence
ex.\\ Can you come over to play!
Period (.)
ends a declar­ative sentence
ex.\\ She left early.
Exclam­ation Point (!)
ends an exclam­atory or imperative sentence
ex.\\ I can't believe we won!
Comma (,)
separates elements in a series
ex.\\ Bring a pencil, pen, ruler and compass
Semicolon (;)
signals more pause than a comma but less than a period
ex.\\ Meet me there; it is easy to find.
Colon (:)
signals that a list is coming ahead
ex.\\ For the recipe you will need: choc chips, flour, milk and nuts.
Dash (-)
indicates a break in thought; used
Our best runners - Susan and Kim not there.


used to show a contra­ction
ex.\\ I’ll mail my applic­ation to you right away.
used to Show Possession
ex.\\ He paid for the gas when he used Dan’s car.

Quotations Marks

Use double quotation marks:
for a direct quotation
ex.\\ "What doesn’t kill me makes me strong­er."­ -Friedrich Nietzsche
in most dialogue
ex.\\ "l am going to a movie with Jenny on Saturd­ay,­" he replied.
for titles of songs, literary works, movies, television series, etc.
ex.\\ The movie “Network” is on TV Friday.
Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation.
ex.\\ "She yelled ‘Stop’ when the bus pulled away,” Dan added.

Spelling Rules:

1. I before e except after c, or when sounded as a
ex.\\ receive, freight
2. When a verb ends in ie., change the ie to y before adding the Suffix ing
ex.\\ die becomes dying, tie becomes tying
3. When a word ends in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i before adding the suffix (unless the suffix begins with i. if the Suffix begins with i, keep the y.)
ex.\\ envy becomes envious, study becomes studying
4. Keep the final e before a suffix beginning with a consonant
ex.\\ advertise becomes advert­isement
5. With the suffixes able and ous, don't drop the e before the Suffixes if the word ends in a soft ce or ge
ex.\\ knowledge becomes knowle­dgeable
6. Doubling the final consonant when a suffix is added to a two syllable word. In the US: most words do not, In Canada: most words do.
ex.\\ US: counsel becomes counselor, Canada counsel becomes counsellor
7. When a word ends with more than­nso­nant, dont double when adding the Suffix
ex.\\ drown becomes drowning