Properties of Life
Having biological molecules that contain instructions for building other molecules
Gather energy and material from surroundings to build new biological molecules, grow in size, maintain and repair their parts, and produce offspring
respond to environmental changes by altering their chemistry and activity in ways that allow them to survive
Structure and functions of living organisms often change over generations: evolution
Definitions chapter 2
Anything that occupies space and has a mass composed of elements and combinations of elements
Elements are composed of atoms- the smaller units that retain the chemical and physical properties of an element
are atoms combine chemically in fixed numbers and ratios of living and nonliving matter
are molecules whose component atoms are different (carbon dioxide)
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons
is a positively charged ion Na+
is a negatively charged ion Cl-
Electronegative or Positive Isotopes
are distinct forms of atoms of an element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Ch.3 Major biological polymers and monomers
may be linear, unbranched molecules, or may contain one or more branches with side chains of sugar units attached to a main chain. Carbohydrate polymers with more than 10 linked monosaccharide monomers are polysaccharides.
are polymers of amino acid monomers, which contain both an amino and a carboxyl group. All organisms use 20 different amino acids to build proteins
are macromolecules assembled from repeating monomers called nucleotides
is a chemical reaction between two compounds where one of the products is water
where water combines with hydroxyl. Breakdown of polymers into monomers.
Specialized structures of plant cells
How are plant cells different from animal cells?
These following structures are in plant cells: chloroplasts, a large vacuole, plant cell walls
How do we think mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved?
from aerobic, oxygen-consuming, prokaryotes
What are the major components and functions of the cytoskeleton?
its an interconnected system of protein fibers and tubes that extends throughout the cytoplasm. Maintains a cells characteristic shape and internal organization function in movements
What is emergent properties?
Characteristics that depend on the level of organization, but do not exists at lower levels.
What are emergent properties of cells?
Prokaryotes, and most protists and fungi have only a single cell.. Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently or as part of a multicellular organism.
What are emergent properties of organisms?
multicellular organisms create tissues, or group of cells to work together or perform a particular function. Individual consisting of interdependent cells
What are emergent properties of populations?
Many individuals create new properties such as: size, density, dispersion structure, age, sexual distribution and genetic variations. Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area.
What are emergent properties of communities?
Members of community can be part of a food chain. Population of all species that occupy the same area
What are emergent properties of ecosystems?
ecosystems cycle energy and matter. They are communities interacting with their shared physical environment
Questions Chapter 2
How is C14 different from C13 or C^12? Can they be part of biological reactions?
Its a radioisotope. All have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
What makes the water molecule polar?
An uneven distribution of electron density and its shape makes it polar.
What emergent properties important to life does hydrogen bonding among water molecules cause?
Cohesive and Adhesive, Water maintains a relatively constant temperature, a good solvent, water expands when it freezes so floats, water has a neutral pH
How does the pH scale measure dissociation of water?
The measure of concentration of protons (H) in water, or essentially the strength of the proton donation reaction.
What is neutral pH?
7 is neutral which is pure water
What is acidic pH?
1-7 on the pH scale
What is basic pH?
7-14 on the pH scale
How does pH affect life?
Measurment to deterinthe acidity and alkalinity of the body.
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic
Nucleoid region has no boundary membrane. Many species of bacteria have few internal membranes
The true nucleus is separated from the surrounding cytoplasm by membranes. Cytoplasm typically contains extensive membrane systems that form organelles
Unique to eukaryotic cells
A membrane- Bound nucleus. It contains one or more nuclei formed around the genes coding for rRNA molecules of ribosomes
Why is the surface area to volume ratio of cells important?
Its important that the surface area to the volume ratio gets smaller as the cell gets larger.
chapter 4. Definitions organelles
membrane bound organelles where cellular respiration occurs
are yellow-green plastids. The site of photosynthesis in plant cells
micro bodies that produce hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) as a by product
What are cell membranes primarily composed of, and how are these arranged to create a barrier?
Composed of phospholipids and proteins and are typically described as phospholipid bi-layer.
What does the mosaic part of the fluid mosaic model refer to?
the cell membrane is composed of mostly lipids but also other types of molecules
What does the fluid part of the model say about cell membrane organization?
The ability of phospholipids to remain as a bilayer, but also spin, drift, and wiggle
What keeps cell membranes fluid at low temperatures in plants and in animals?
What is the role of cholesterol in stabilizing membranes in animals?
Cholesterol functions as a buffer, preventing lower temp. from inhibiting fluidity and preventing higher temps.
what principles govern diffusion and osmosis?
what type of molecules are cell membranes most permeable to?
what cannot pass?
Why are transport proteins necessary?
How does the cell membrane participate in exocytosis and endocytosis?
Hierarchies of Life
Type of bonds
results from electrical attractions between atoms that gain or lose valence electrons completely (ions)
form when atoms share a pair of valence electrons rather than gaining or losing. H2=H:H
electrons are shared unequally between two atoms
two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other
Van der Waals
are weak forces that develop over short distances between non polar molecules as moving electrons accumulate by chance in one part of a molecule or another
are attractions between partially positive hydrogen atoms and partially negative atoms sharing in a different covalent bond
The difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
Saturated fats are solid at room temperature while unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Saturated fats have no double bond between molecules, unsaturated fats have double bonds, which reads up the chain of hydrogen molecules and creates gaps.
What are phospholipids?
Are from cell membranes
What are steroids?
Serve as hormones that regulate cellular activites
has many ribosomes on its outer surface. Proteins made on these ribosomes enter the ER lumen, where they fold and receive chemical modifications, such as addition of carbohydrate groups to produce glycoproteins
membranes have no ribosomes attached to their surfaces. Membrane lipids are synthesized in their compartments. Live smooth ER detoxifies drugs, poisons, and by-products
the golgi complex "tags" proteins for sorting to their final destinations
are small membrane-bound vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes that digest complex molecules-cells recycle the subunits of these molecules lysosomes are found in animals, but not plants.
What does the scientist want to learn more about?
An "educated" guess of an answer to the question
Written and carefully followed step-bys-step experiment designed to test the hypothesis
Information collected during the experiment
Written description of what was noticed during the experiment
Was the hypothesis correct or incorrect?
Structure of amino acids
Properties of the different amino acids groups create four levels of protein structure
Forces that hold the structure together
what happens when a protein is denatured?
Unfolding a protein from its active conformation so that it loses its structure and function (caused by chemicals, changes in pH, high temp)
Light microscope & electron microscope
Definition: use electrons to illuminate the specimen
Definition: use light to illuminate the specimen Magnification&Resolution: have much higher magnification and resolutionthan Light microscopes.
Function and Major features ch. 4
Stores the cell hereditary material, coordinates the cells activites. only eukaryotes have a nucleus.
A bilayer made of phospholipids with embedded protein molecules
are a cell structure that makes protein. Protein is needed for many cell functions such as repairing damage or directing chemical processes.