It is a surface phenomenon in which there is a change in the direction of path of light when it passes from one media to another
Cause of Refraction
When a ray of light passes from one media to another it deviates because of the change in the speed of the light.
Laws of Refraction
1) The incident ray, refracted ray and the normal, all lie in the same plane.
2) The ratio of sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is constant.
The refractive index of a medium refers to the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction. It can also be defined as the ratio of speed of light in vacuum/a medium to the speed of light in another medium.
μ = speed of light in vacuum / speed of light in a medium
medium 1μmedium 2 = speed in medium 1 / speed in medium 2
med 1μmed 2 = V1 / V2 = μmed 2 / μmed 1
Med = Medium. The stuff in superscript is supposed to be in subscript.
Factors Affecting Refractive Index
1) Density of the medium
Principle of Reversibility
The Principle of Reversibility states that a path of a light ray is reversible.
It implies 1μ2 X 2μ1 = 1
The perpendicular distance between the path of the emergent ray and the direction of the incident ray is called Lateral displacement.
Factors Affecting Lateral Displacement
1) Thickness of medium
2) Angle of incidence
3) Refractive Index
Angle of Deviation in Prism
The angle formed between the direction of incident ray and the emergent ray is called the angle of deviation. It is represented by δ. δ = (i1 + i2) - (r1 + r2). δ + A = i1 + i2.
Factors affecting Angle of Deviation
1) Angle of incidence
2) Refractive Index
3) Angle of Prism
Real & Apparent Depth
An Object placed in a denser medium when viewed from a rarer medium appears to be at a lesser depth. This is because of refraction of light. μ=RD/AD
Factors affecting Shift
1) Refractive Index
Consequences of Refraction of Light
A star appears as if it is twinkling- this is because of change in refractive index due to the change in temp. or density.
Bending of a pencil half underwater- this is due to the refraction of light that the pencil appears to bend towards the surface of the water.
A coin kept in a vessel is not visible when seen from just below the edge of the vessel but can be viewed from the same position if water is added.
A Pond appears shallower than its actual depth.