Ch. 1: Three Ways Philosophy Has Value
1. Good of the mind
2. Keep alive speculative interest
3. Breaks us of "dogmatism"
Ch. 1: Types of Thinking
Thinking about what is right, good, or obligatory
Describe or explain moral phenomena
Thinking about the meaning or use of good, bad, or obligatory
Ch. 1: Reasoning in Moral Matters
1. Decision must be made by facts & reason and not emotions
2. Do not base your decision by appealing to what others think.
a. They may be wrong
b.We must think for ourselves
3. Never do what is morally wrong
a. Ask "Is this right or wrong"? instead of selfish questions like "what will people think"?
Ch. 1: 3 Arguments for Making an Ethical Choice
1. We should never harm anyone
2. If one chooses to live in said state, then they are agreeing to obey its laws
3.One's society or "state" is basically one's parent and teacher and you're supposed to obey your parent's and teacher's
Ch. 2: Why Socrates Should NOT Escape
1. Harm no one (including self
a. escaping would harm the state because it violates and disregards laws
2. Keep promises (agreements, contracts)
a. by choosing to live in said state you are agreeing to abide by their laws
3. Obey one's parents and teachers (laws, state)
a. one's society is basically your parent/teacher and you're supposed to obey your parents
Ch. 2 Why Crito Thinks Socrates Should Escape
1. It would be shameful for Socrates to leave his sons without a father
2.People would think Socrate's friends valued him less than the money it would take to arrange his escape
3.It would be unjust for Socrates to cooperate with his enemies' unjust plans to destroy him
Ch. 5: Moral Judgment vs. Personal Preference
1. A personal preference different from someone else's does not deny what the other person say
a. I like dogs and I don't like dogs (one statement does not make the other one wrong)
2. A difference in moral judgments will deny what the other person is saying
a. All wars are unjust and some wars are unjust (both statements cannot be true)
Ch 5. How Not To Make A Moral Choice
1. Simply thinking it does not make it so
a. moral judgments must be based on more than belief
b. two people might think they are both correct but they both can't be correct
2. Using opinion polls or a consensus
a. this merely will show what MOST people think (and moral judgments must be based on more than belief)
3. Appeal to a higher power (God)
a. We do not know if God exists
b. We are not sure what God thinks about moral questions (misinterpreting the bible)
c. many new moral questions cannot be answered by the Bible because of progressions in technology (life-sustaining tech)
d. there is not an independent way of testing the truth or reasonableness of God's moral judgments
Ch. 7: What Does Cultural Relativism Say
1. Different societies have different moral codes
2. There is no objective standard to judge one societal code better than another
3. The moral code of our own society has no special status; just one among many
4.There is no "universal truth" in ethics (no moral truths that apply to all people of all time)
5. The moral code of a society determines what is right within only that society
6. It is arrogant for us to judge other people and we should instead be tolerant of their conduct
Ch. 6: God and Morality
1. Why "murder is immoral because it destroys what God created" is wrong
a. God also created germs and viruses, should these also not be eliminated?
b. God arranged for us to live but also die. By killing are we assisting the work of God?
c. God provided us with the mental and physical potential to commit murder. Does God wish us to fulfill this potential?
2. Are actions right because God says they are or are they right because "right is right"
a. one should act morally not because you are told but because you ought to which means that actions are not "right" because God commands them but because "right is right"
Ch. 7 What Can Be Learned from Cultural Relativism
1. Warns us about the danger of assuming that ALL our preferences are based on some absolute rational standard.
a. women covering breasts is not objectionably right or wrong but merely a cultural preference
2. To keep an open mind and be tolerant of other cultures practices`
Ch. 7: The Cultural Differences Argument
1. What is the Cultural Differences Argument
a. different cultures have different moral codes
b. therefore, there is no objective "truth" in morality: morality is only a matter of opinion and opinions vary from culture to culture
2. Why is the Cultural Differences Argument incorrect
a. the argument concerns what people believe and just because you believe something does not make it true: some cultures believe the earth is flat and others round, cultural relativism says they are both correct but that can't be true
Ch. 7: Consequences of Taking CR Seriously
1. Cannot criticize the customers of other societies
a. a society that practices slavery and is anti-Semitic cannot be judged wrong by us
2. We could decide whether actions are right or wrong just by consulting the standards of our society
a. cannot criticize or change our own societies code
3. Moral progress is called into doubt
a. changes to women's rights and discrimination would not be called progress because progress requires changing a current way with a better way: which means judging our current society's moral code with that of another society's or time
Ch. 7: Common Values Cultures Have
1. Protective of infants
a. group would eventually die out if infants aren't raised due to no non-replenishment of people
a. if every one lies how can a society ever communicate
b. complex societies must favor truthfulness to thrive
3. There are some moral rules that all societies will have in common because they are necessary for society to exist
Help Us Go Positive!
We offset our carbon usage with Ecologi. Click the link below to help us!