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Metabolism & Digestion Cheat Sheet by

I used Fundaments of Nursing by Yoost & Crawford & Medical-Surgical Nursing by Ignatavicius, Workman, Rebar, & Heimgartner to complete this cheat sheet.


The process of chemically changing nutrients, such as fats & proteins, into end products that are used to meet the energy needs of the body or stored for future use, thereby helping maintain homeos­tasis
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
The minimum amount of energy required to maintain body functions in the resting, awake state
The use of energy to change simple materials into complex body substances & tissue
The breaking down of substances from complex to simple, resulting in a release of energy
Nutrients that are needed in large amounts
Nutrients that are needed by the body in limited amounts
Semiliquid product of digestion that travels from the stomach through the intestines
Wavelike muscular movement through the digestive tract
Difficulty Swallowing
A protein & caloric deficiency
Lack of protein accomp­anied by fluid retention
Elevation of plasma choles­terol, trigly­cer­ides, or both
Physical wasting


Chemical substances composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen molescules
Major suppliers of energy & include sugars, starches, & fiber
Are broken down & absorbed quickly, providing a quick source of energy
Ex: sugars, such as those derived from fruit (fruct­ose), table sugar (sucrose), milk products (lactose) & blood sugar (glucose)
Take longer to break down before absorption & use by the body's cells
Are composed of starches, glycogen, & fiber
Provide the body with vitamins & minerals
Is a complex carb & classified as soluble or insoluble
Solubility refers to the dispos­ition of the fiber when mixed with another substance
Insoluble fiber doesn't retain water but allows formation of bulk, resulting in the accele­rated passage of the end products of food through the intestines & a slowing of starch absorption
Soluble fiber mixes with water & forms gel-like substance, which results in slower digestion
Lack of fiber can lead to bowel-­related condit­ions, such as consti­pation, hemorr­hoids, & formation of divert­icula
The presence of protru­sions of the intestinal membrane through the muscular layer of the intestine is called divert­icu­losis


Composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen & yield 9 kiloca­lories per gram when metabo­lized with the body
Refer to any fat within the body, including true fats & oils (such as fatty acids, choles­terol, & phosph­oli­pids)
Needed for energy­& to support cellular growth
Energy produc­tion, support & insulation of major organs & nerve fibers, energy storage of adipose tissue, lubric­ation for body tissues, vitamin absorp­tion, & transp­ort­ation of fat-so­luble vitamins (A, D, E, & K)
The most abundant lipids in food
Although it's important to have a limited intake of trigly­cer­ides, an excess can be unhealthy, contri­buting to health problems such as coronary artery disease & obesity
Saturated Fatty Acids
Contain as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms can bond with & no double carbon bonds
Sources include hard margar­ines, vegetable shorte­nings, pastries, crackers, fried foods, cheese, ice cream, & other processed foods
Monoun­sat­urated Fatty Acids
Have only 1 double bond between carbon atoms
Sources include canola, olive, & peanut oils, as well as almonds, sesame seeds, avocados, & cashews
Polyun­sat­urated Fatty Acids
Have multiple pairs of double carbon bonds
Sources include corn , safflower, sesame, soybean, & sunflower seed oils, & fish (such as halibut herring, mackerel, salmon, sardines, fresh tuna, trout, & whitefish)
Composed of partially hydrog­enated fatty acids, & saturated fats
Known to raise the body's total choles­terol
A waxy, fatlike substance that is found in all cells of the body
~75% is produced by the liver & intest­ines; the remaining 25% is from dietary intake


Actively partic­ipate in the develo­pment, mainte­nance, & repair of the body's tissues, organs, & cells
Amino Acids
Referred to as the "­bui­lding blocks­" of proteins


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