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Metabolism & Digestion Cheat Sheet by

I used Fundaments of Nursing by Yoost & Crawford & Medical-Surgical Nursing by Ignatavicius, Workman, Rebar, & Heimgartner to complete this cheat sheet.

Vocabulary

Metabolism
The process of chemically changing nutrients, such as fats & proteins, into end products that are used to meet the energy needs of the body or stored for future use, thereby helping maintain homeos­tasis
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
The minimum amount of energy required to maintain body functions in the resting, awake state
Anabolism
The use of energy to change simple materials into complex body substances & tissue
Catabolism
The breaking down of substances from complex to simple, resulting in a release of energy
Macron­utr­ients
Nutrients that are needed in large amounts
Micron­utr­ients
Nutrients that are needed by the body in limited amounts
Chyme
Semiliquid product of digestion that travels from the stomach through the intestines
Perist­alsis
Wavelike muscular movement through the digestive tract
Dysphagia
Difficulty Swallowing
Marasmus
A protein & caloric deficiency
Kwashi­orkor
Lack of protein accomp­anied by fluid retention
Hyperl­ipi­demia
Elevation of plasma choles­terol, trigly­cer­ides, or both
Cachexia
Physical wasting

Carboh­ydrates

Definition
Chemical substances composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen molescules
Function
Major suppliers of energy & include sugars, starches, & fiber
Simple
Are broken down & absorbed quickly, providing a quick source of energy
 
Ex: sugars, such as those derived from fruit (fruct­ose), table sugar (sucrose), milk products (lactose) & blood sugar (glucose)
Complex
Take longer to break down before absorption & use by the body's cells
 
Are composed of starches, glycogen, & fiber
 
Provide the body with vitamins & minerals
Fiber
Is a complex carb & classified as soluble or insoluble
 
Solubility refers to the dispos­ition of the fiber when mixed with another substance
 
Insoluble fiber doesn't retain water but allows formation of bulk, resulting in the accele­rated passage of the end products of food through the intestines & a slowing of starch absorption
 
Soluble fiber mixes with water & forms gel-like substance, which results in slower digestion
 
Lack of fiber can lead to bowel-­related condit­ions, such as consti­pation, hemorr­hoids, & formation of divert­icula
 
The presence of protru­sions of the intestinal membrane through the muscular layer of the intestine is called divert­icu­losis
 

Fats

Definition
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen & yield 9 kiloca­lories per gram when metabo­lized with the body
Lipids
Refer to any fat within the body, including true fats & oils (such as fatty acids, choles­terol, & phosph­oli­pids)
Function
Needed for energy­& to support cellular growth
Benefits
Energy produc­tion, support & insulation of major organs & nerve fibers, energy storage of adipose tissue, lubric­ation for body tissues, vitamin absorp­tion, & transp­ort­ation of fat-so­luble vitamins (A, D, E, & K)
Trigly­cerides
The most abundant lipids in food
 
Although it's important to have a limited intake of trigly­cer­ides, an excess can be unhealthy, contri­buting to health problems such as coronary artery disease & obesity
Saturated Fatty Acids
Contain as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms can bond with & no double carbon bonds
 
Sources include hard margar­ines, vegetable shorte­nings, pastries, crackers, fried foods, cheese, ice cream, & other processed foods
Monoun­sat­urated Fatty Acids
Have only 1 double bond between carbon atoms
 
Sources include canola, olive, & peanut oils, as well as almonds, sesame seeds, avocados, & cashews
Polyun­sat­urated Fatty Acids
Have multiple pairs of double carbon bonds
 
Sources include corn , safflower, sesame, soybean, & sunflower seed oils, & fish (such as halibut herring, mackerel, salmon, sardines, fresh tuna, trout, & whitefish)
Transfats
Composed of partially hydrog­enated fatty acids, & saturated fats
 
Known to raise the body's total choles­terol
Choles­terol
A waxy, fatlike substance that is found in all cells of the body
 
~75% is produced by the liver & intest­ines; the remaining 25% is from dietary intake
 

Protein

Function
Actively partic­ipate in the develo­pment, mainte­nance, & repair of the body's tissues, organs, & cells
Amino Acids
Referred to as the "­bui­lding blocks­" of proteins
 

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