Cyanotic Congenital Heart Anomalies
Pulmonary valve closed, ASD and PDA present, intact ventricular septum
Transposition of the great vessels
Complete transposition of the aorta and pulmonary artery
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Small left ventricle, normal great vessels
Tetralogy of Fallot
Subaortic septal defect, right ventricular outflow obstruction, overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy
Acyanotic Congenital Heart Abnormalities
Opening between the left and right atria. Ostium secundum most common.
Opening between the left and right ventricle. **Most common of all congenital defects.
AV Septal Defect (Canal)
Due to incomplete fusion of the endocardial fusions. Common in Down Syndrome.
Failure/delay in closure of the channel bypassing the lungs (which during fetal development allows placental gas exchange)
Coarctation of the Aorta
Narrowing in the proximal thoracic aorta
Aortic/Mitral Valvular Disorders
Narrowing of the valve opening
Aortic Insufficiency (Regurg)
Results in volume overload of left ventricle
Impedes blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle
Causes backflow and volume overload of left atrium
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Can range from asymptomatic to causing mitral regurg.
Consequence of calve-related heart failure
Pulmonary HTN + congestion
Most common cause of mitral/aortic valve disorders
Congenital defects* (also rheumatic heart disease, infix)
Clinical scenario: female with minor chest wall deformity, mid systolic click, late systolic murmur
Mitral valve prolapse
surgical repair, valve replacement, and balloon valvuloplasty
Anticoagulation therapy esp. if pt. has Afib, and abc to prevent enocarditis if regurg.
Tricuspid/Pulmonic Valve Disorders
Right-sided pressure overload leads to:
Right-sided cardiomegaly, systemic venous congestion, and right-sided heart failure
Exercise intolerance, JVD, peripheral eema, hepatomegaly
Definitive method for identifying structural/functional abnormalities
Na+ restriciton, diruteic therapy --> decrease fluid volume and right atrial filling pressure