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Life Span Development Pyschology Chapters 6-9 Cheat Sheet by

An overview that covers chapters 6-9

Chapter 6

Jean Piaget Theory of Cognitive Develo­pment: Processes
Scheme­s:C­hild’s knowledge, repres­­en­t­a­tions, and ways of intera­­cting with the world. Emphasized indepe­­ndent thinking
Adapta­tion: Relates schemes & experi­­ences in the world Assimi­­lation interprets new experience in terms of existing schemes. Accomm­­od­ation alters schemes in response to new experi­­ences. Equili­­br­ation assimi­­lation & accomm­­od­ation working together to enrich the child’s worldview.
Stages: Period 1: Sensor­­imotor Intell­­igence (Birth­­-2yrs & consist of six stages)
Reflexes (1 month) Primary Circular Reactions (1 to 4 months) Infants coordinate two body actions. Baby chances upon a new experience & tries to repeat its “const­­ru­ction process” Secondary Circular Reactions (4 to 8 months) Baby discovers & reproduces an intere­­sting event outside themselves The Coordi­­nation of Secondary Schemes (8 to 12 months) Learning to coordinate two different schemes to get a result Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) infant experi­­ments with different actions & observes the outcome The Beginnings of Thought (18mo – 2 years) Children think out situations more internally before they act, marked by deferred imitation
Period 2: Pre-op­e­r­at­­ional Thought (2-7 years) S
Symbolic functi­­on­/­R­ep­­res­­en­t­a­tional insight The Prefrontal Cortex Social Thinking, Animism Assuming that all things that move are alive and have human charac­­te­r­i­stics, Reific­­ation Believing that people & objects in stories and dreams are real, Egocen­­trism collective monolo­­gu­e­s­,f­­ailing to realize that others can't see one's dreams, not consid­­ering another's viewpoint Lack of conser­­vation is a sign of this stage
Period 3: Concrete Operations (7-11 Years)
Cognitive operations Internal mental activity to modify symbols to reach a logical conclu­­sion. Marked by mastery of conser­­vation (by recogn­­izing the contra­­di­c­tions in their own thought) master conser­­vation and classi­­fi­c­ation tasks
Period 4: Formal Operation (12+)
Hypoth­­et­i­c­-d­­edu­­ctive reasoning ability to generate hypotheses and use deductive reasoning (general to specific) Inductive Reasoning going from specific observ­­ations to genera­­li­z­a­tions
Evaluating Piaget's theory:
Piaget's theory has some shortc­omings, including overes­tim­ating the ability of adoles­cence and undere­sti­mating the infant's capacity. Piaget also neglected cultural and social intera­ction factors in the develo­pment of children's cognition and thinking ability.
Vygotsky’s theory of Cognitive develo­pme­nt:Zone of proximal develo­pment (upper and lower limits)
The distance between what a learner is capable of doing unsupp­­orted, and what they can only do is supported (assesses child's potential for new learning) The zone has a lower limit: things that are difficult but possible for a child to learn alone, and an upper limit: things that a child cannot yet learn, even with assistance from an adult.
Evaluation Piaget's theory:
Piaget suggested the teacher's role involved providing approp­riate learning experi­ences and materials that stimulate students to advance their thinking. His theory has influenced concepts of individual and studen­t-c­entered learning, formative assess­ment, active learning, discovery learning, and peer intera­ction
Scaffo­lding is an instru­ctional method in which teachers demons­trate the process of proble­m-s­olving for their students and explain the steps as they go along. After a few initial explan­ations, the instructor will then remove themselves from the students and only offer help when needed. Scaffo­­lding gradually removes assistance to the child
Language and thoughts
Vygotsky analyzes the relati­onship between words and consci­ous­ness, arguing that speech is social in its origins and that only as children develop does it become intern­alized verbal thought. Thought changes fundam­­en­tally once we are able to think in words
Inner speech
Inner speech is not the interior aspect of external speech—it is a function in itself. It still remains speech, i.e., thought connected with words. In inner speech, words die as they bring forth thought.
Evaluation of Vygotsky's theory
Rogoff (1990) dismisses the idea that Vygotsky's ideas are culturally universal and instead states the concept of scaffo­lding – which is heavily dependent on verbal instru­ction – may not be equally useful in all cultures for all types of learning.
Cognitive change in adulth­ooda. Piaget’s view
Piaget believed that people of all ages developed intell­ect­ually. But he also believed that once a person reaches the formal operat­ional stage, it's more about building upon knowledge, not changing how it's acquired or unders­tood.
Postformal thought
ostformal thought is a stage of develo­pment that occurs in early adulthood in which a person gains the ability to synthesize opposing ideas or feelings into a more complete unders­tan­ding. In post formal thought, a person unders­tands that there are contra­dic­tions that exist in the world.Jul


Credit @moomooe

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