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Columbian Exchange

Starting with Europeans, mainly spaniards, coming to america
the "old world" presentsed more crops
brought deadly diseases with them: smallpox, measles, chicke­npox, influenza, malaria, yellow fever
wheat, barley, rice, turnips
^shows long term effects of the columbian exchange: killed off most of the native population

Columbian Exchange

The native people suffered from white brutality, alcoho­lism, & the killing & driving off of game previously used to sustain the population
^^short term effects of the columbian exchange

Social Hierarchy of america

viceroy
high ranking officials of the catholic church
penins­ulares
pure spaniards that moved from spain to america
creoles
decedents of spaniards that were born in the new world
mestizos
spanish and native american children
Native americans
slaves
brought from the caribbean or africa

Mexican revolution

the spanish rewrote the hierarchy of power
put themselves at the top
1535- vice royalty of new spain was created
new political structure, made spanish king the basis of power in the americas
 

Mexican Revolution

1910-1920
partially caused by the treaty of tordes­ail­les (1494) the treaty that gave the spanish control over all of the west except brazil
25 million natives down to 1 million due to disease

Early history

societies in the north american & canadian region tended to be smaller & less sophis­ticated then Mexico & south america
this was due to the slowness of the northward spread of corn cultiv­ation from Mexico
non sustai­nable food source = less people
lived in semi-p­erm­anent settle­ments in groups of around 300 people
men made tools & hunted while women gathered plants & nuts & grew crops
potential patric­archy, men dominated society

Early history

cultures of the native americans were very diverse
languages branched off to create more than 20 seperate language families
New mexico & arizona
lived in caves, under cliffs, & multis­toreied buildings
Pacific coast
rich & diverse diet: hunting, fishing, gathering nuts, berries, & roots; carved totem poles to keep record of stories
Great plains
nomadic hunters & sedentary peoples, farmed & traded, lived in teepees: easily decons­tru­ct-able for travel
 

Early history

first people to arrive in the americas arrived arpund 40,000 years ago
migrated from Asia through the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska (is now under water)
Mayas
built extensive cities in the rainfo­rests of the Yucatan Peninsula
Aztecs
prospered several centuries after the Mayas, created a powerful empire in central Mexico
Incas
based in peru, developed an extensive empire in south america
^^all civili­zations created highly developed societies
carried trade, and created calendars based on observ­ation
farmed to create a sustai­nable food supply

European explor­ation

until the 1400's the continents had no knowledge of each other
Columbus' voyage across the atlantic finally connected people
the renais­sance
a rebirth in classical learning in the 15th-16th centuries
^made Columbus' voyage possible^
innova­tions in technology included:
gunpowder, sailing compass, printing press
 

Early explor­ation

early 1500s- chrisitans in germany, england, france, holland & other northern european countries revolted against the pope in rome
known as the protestant reform­ation
didnt think the pope should have supreme rule
resulted in a series of religious wars
catholics of different countries spread their versions of christ­ianity to the people of africa, asia, & the americas

Expanding trade

increased compet­ition among european kingdoms for trade to africa, india, & china
spurred explor­ation
Portugals Prince henry the navigator opened a sea route around africa's cape of good hope

Explor­ation

spains expanding power was because of its explorers and conqui­sta­dores
they found large deposits of silver in the new world, which were then shipped back to spain
it made spain one of the richest and most powerful forces at the time
spanish created the encom­ienda system
king of spain gives grants of land & slaves to spaniards
natives do hard labor ->
benefits go to their spanish masters
in turn the natives are "­pro­tec­ted­" by their owners
           
 

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