CH 7-11 on Managing People and Organizations
Groups and Group Identity
Social identity theory
A perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups
Perspective in which we see members of
our ingroup as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same.
The inverse of an ingroup; an outgoup can mean anyone outside the group, but more usually it is an identified other group.
Temporary groups with finite deadlines pass through, punctuated-equilibrium model, a unique sequencing of actions (or inaction)
Stages of Group Development
The first meeting sets the group’s direction
The first phase of group activity is one of inertia and thus makes slower progress.
A transition takes place exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time.
This transition initiates major changes
A second phase of inertia follows the transition
The group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING
generate more complete information and knowledge.
increased diversity of views
acceptance of a solution
Creating Effective Teams
Leadership and Structure
Climate of Trust
Performance Evaluations and Reward systems
Abilities of members
Personality of members
Allocation of roles
Diversity of Members
Size of teams
Common Plan and Purpose
Team cohesion -
Three key components of effective teams: (1) resources and other contextual influences (2) team’s composition. (3) process variables
Types of Teams
Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department
Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisors
Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas
A collection of two or more interdependent teams that share a superordinate goal; a team of teams
Differences Between Groups and Teams
work group - a group that interacts primarily to share information and make decisions to help each member perform within his or her area of responsibility.
Work team - A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs
Barriers to effective communication
A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver
Receivers selectively see and hear based on their needs.
A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity
Interpret message differently depending on moods
Words mean different things to different people
Non-interest or inability to deal with a topic
Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication or both
Misrepresentation of information
Nominal Group Technique
A group decision-making method in which individual members meet
face to face to pool their judgments in
a systematic but independent fashion.
1. Before any discussion takes place, each member independently writes down ideas about the problem.
2. After this silent period, each member presents one idea to the group. No discussion takes place until all ideas have been presented and recorded
3. The group discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them.
4. Each group member silently and independently rank-orders the ideas. The idea with the highest aggregate ranking determines the final decision.
Group Properties (6)