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Teams, Groups, and Communication Cheat Sheet by

CH 7-11 on Managing People and Organizations

Groups and Group Identity

Social identity theory
A perspe­ctive that considers when and why indivi­duals consider themselves members of groups
Ingroup favoritism
Perspe­ctive in which we see members of
our ingroup as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same.
The inverse of an ingroup; an outgoup can mean anyone outside the group, but more usually it is an identified other group.

Punctu­ate­d-e­qui­librium model

Temporary groups with finite deadlines pass through, punctu­ate­d-e­qui­librium model, a unique sequencing of actions (or inaction)

Stages of Group Develo­pment

The first meeting sets the group’s direction
The first phase of group activity is one of inertia and thus makes slower progress.
A transition takes place exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time.
This transition initiates major changes
A second phase of inertia follows the transition
The group’s last meeting is charac­terized by markedly accele­rated activity


generate more complete inform­ation and knowledge.
increased diversity of views
acceptance of a solution
conformity pressures
ambiguous respon­sib­ility

Creating Effective Teams

Team context
Adequate resources
Leadership and Structure
Climate of Trust
Perfor­mance Evalua­tions and Reward systems
Team composition
Abilities of members
Personality of members
Allocation of roles
Diversity of Members
Cultural differ­ences
Size of teams
Member prefer­ences
Team Processes
Common Plan and Purpose
Specific Goals
Team efficacy
Team identity
Team cohesion -
Mental models
conflict levels
social loafing
Three key components of effective teams: (1) resources and other contextual influences (2) team’s compos­ition. (3) process variables

Types of Teams

Proble­m-s­olving teams
Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department
Self-managed teams
Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on respon­sib­ilities of their former superv­isors
Cross-­fun­ctional teams
Employees from about the same hierar­chical level, but from different work areas
Virtual teams
Remote workers
Multi-team system
A collection of two or more interd­epe­ndent teams that share a supero­rdinate goal; a team of teams

Differ­ences Between Groups and Teams

work group - a group that interacts primarily to share inform­ation and make decisions to help each member perform within his or her area of respon­sib­ility.
Work team - A group whose individual efforts result in perfor­mance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs

Barriers to effective commun­ication

A sender’s manipu­lation of inform­ation so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver
Selective perception
Receivers select­ively see and hear based on their needs.
Inform­ation overload
A condition in which inform­ation inflow exceeds an indivi­dual’s processing capacity
Interpret message differ­ently depending on moods
Words mean different things to different people
Non-in­terest or inability to deal with a topic
Commun­ication appreh­ension
Undue tension and anxiety about oral commun­ica­tion, written commun­ication or both
Misrep­res­ent­ation of inform­ation

Nominal Group Technique

A group decision-making method in which individual members meet
face to face to pool their judgments in
a systematic but independent fashion.
1. Before any discussion takes place, each member independently writes down ideas about the problem.
2. After this silent period, each member presents one idea to the group. No discussion takes place until all ideas have been presented and recorded
3. The group discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them.
4. Each group member silently and independently rank-orders the ideas. The idea with the highest aggregate ranking determines the final decision.

Group Properties (6)



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