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Pharmacology Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

pharmacology - pharmacodynaomcs, pharmacokinetics

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


Founded by German Professor Rudolf Buchheim (1820 - 1879)
He introduced 2 important prinic­ples:
- The natural system of drug classi­fic­ation based on their mode of action
- experi­mental pharma­cology
- 1806: Morphine
- 1908: Sulfan­ilamide (first­-an­tib­act­erial)
- 1912: Phenob­arbital (first ant-ep­ile­ptic)
- 1921: Insulin
1956: Tolbut­amide (first oral anti-h­ype­rgl­ycemic)
- 1957: Propanolol (first Beta blocker)
- 1961: L-DOPA (Parki­nson's disease)
- 1975: ACE inhibitors (first­-line for HTN)
Pharma­cology before 19th Century
- Made at home, by apothe­cary, by unregu­lated commercial interests
- marketed w/o evidence or unders­tanding
- Spirit­ual­-based healing was popular and successful
Pharma­cology in the 21st Century
- Emphasis on molecules and cells as targets vs tissues, organs, and whole animals
Human Genome Project (indiv­idu­alized medicine)
- Drugs designed around a disease specific target
- Examines intera­ctions b/w drugs & living organisms
- Pharma­cology: Scientific discipline that invest­igates the intera­ctions b/w living organisms and 'drugs'
- Drug: Chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, preven­tion, or diagnosis of disease.
- Pharma­cok­inetics: what the body does to drugs
- Pharma­cod­ynamics: what the drugs do to the body
- Molecular Pharma­cology: experi­mental pharma­cology
- Clinical Pharma­cology: science of using drugs in humans (clinical research), based on lab studies, seeks to understand how a drug should be used in practice
- Pharma­cog­enetics: why people respond to drugs differ­ently
Drug Classification
- Anatomical
- Therapeutic use
- Pharmacological mechanism
- Chemical group
- Chemical substance
Drug Nomenc­lature
- Chemical name
- Generic name
- Brand name
Physical Nature of Drugs
- Pills are mainly inactive ingred­ients which help with the admin. of active ingred­ients
- When molecules are very big they cannot be absorbed very well orally bc they cannot pass through the lipid bilayers
- There may be different isotopes of drugs. Not all isotopes will be effective (D- form vs. L-form)


Drug Targets
- Receptors
- Enzymes
- Carrier Molecules
- Voltag­e-gated ion channels
- Ionotropic: ion channel receptors, ions flow into the neuron, mediates fast transm­ission
    - Eg: cholin­ergic (nicot­inic), GABAa
- Metabo­tropic: G protein coupled (secondary messen­gers), mediates slow transm­ission, change enzyme activity, protein expres­sion, open slow ion channels
 ­  - Eg: adrene­rgic, cholin­ergic (musca­rinic), GABAb
Secondary Messengers: intrac­ellular compounds that help to transduce ligand­-bi­nding to a physio­logical or pharma­col­ogical effect (cAMP, cGMP, PKA, PDE, Ca2+)
   - Ligands or agonists are considered 'first messen­gers'