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English CAE preparation Cheat Sheet by

STYLE

Do not use contra­ctions
Use passive forms whenever possible
Use relative clauses to join ideas: The period during whi­ch he lived was full of uncert­ainty
Use these formal words: like such as / kids children
a lot (of) many / a large number of + countable noun
a lot (of) much / a great amount of / a great deal of + uncoun­table
a lot (inten­sity) very much / signif­icantly / dramat­ically
Avoid using the word things / someth­ing, etc. Use a more specific word (prob­lems, situation, solutions, subjects, and so on)
Never omit the subject pronoun: Many people
Do not use unnec­essary subject pronouns: This is a problem which it is essential to solve
Make sure the subject and the verb agree: Attra­cting tourists involves improving local facilities
(SINGULAR SUBJECT attracting tourists + SINGULAR VERB involves)
Gene­rally speaking
Annoyi­ngly,… Natura­lly,… Strang­ely,… Surpri­sin­gly,… Eviden­tly,… Indeed,… In fact,… Admitt­edly,… Presum­ably,…

Evaluating ideas - Dismissing contrary arguments

I think it is true that...
I totally disagree with the point that...
I totally agree with the point that...
It is questi­onable whether ....
I am sure whethe­r....
It is true that....On the other hand, ....
Although it is true that...., we must remember that....
I agree that.... However, ...
It could be argued that....H­owever, I would like to point out that....
Notwit­hst­anding the claim that..., I would argue that....
It may be true that...., but all too often...
In no way can I agree that...
Surely it is completely unacce­ptable that....
In no way can I agree that...
 

Making an argument in writing

I will discuss two possible approaches to this issue
I will discuss two advantages / priorities
The first option to consider
The first idea is to
A second altern­ative / tactic
Compared to
Lead to
I would argue that
Not only... also
In addition
To sum up
In my view / Overall
First of all / To begin with / In the first place
Firstly... Second­ly.... Finally
It is also important to note that
In light of the results above
Regarding _____ / According to my survey
In terms of ____ / As for ____
Another example of .... is
I have come to the conclusion that
My final point is that
One possible solution is
What is more / Moreover
A further point is
I would like to make the following recomm­end­ations
This proposal is intended to
 

FORMAL WRITING (Reports and proposals)

Intr­odu­ction
Gene­ral­ising
The main purpos­e/aim of (this report) is to outline/
On the whole,…
present / discuss / examine / evaluate…
This report (outli­nes­/looks at)…
This report is based on…

Making recomm­end­ations and concluding

It is clear from customer feedback that…
In light of the above, we believe the follow­ing­mea­sures should be adopted…
With regard to…, the general view seems to be…
In the light of (this year’s experi­ence),…
In the short/long term, we suggest you should
Perhaps the most effective way of…
consider…
If the (centre) is to attract more customers, it is
My recomm­end­ations are as follows:…
vital that…
In my view, in future, we should…
It would be a good idea to…
To improve the situation, we recommend…
It is (there­fore) believed / obvious that…would be
It is recomm­ended that…
Ideal for…
To sum up,…To conclude,…
It would (not) be advisable / practical to…
I hope that the plan outlin­ed/­pre­sented in this
We sugges­t/p­ropose that…
Report meets with your approval…
We sugges­t/p­ropose + ing
I hope that the recomm­end­ations outlined/ presented in this report will receive your serious consid­eration
   

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