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microbial control Cheat Sheet by

micro cheat sheet nursing

termin­ology of microbe control

removal or destru­ction of ALL microbes in or on an object
steril­izing agent
an enviro­nment or procedure that is free of all pathogenic contam­inants
microbial contam­ination
using physical or chemical agents to destroy microb­es/­viruses on NON LIVING surface
reduction of microbes on LIVING tissue
removing microbes by mechanical means (ex. washing hands with soap)
removing pathogens from objects to meet public health standard
use of heat to destroy pathogen
a chemical or physical agent PREVENTS microbial metabolism and growth
-cide/ cidal
agents that destroy or perman­ently inactivate a particular type of microbe

physical microbe control

heat steril­ization
uses heat at specific time and temp. to denature and destroy cell membranes can be used to pasteu­rize, sterilize, sanitize and disinfect
moist heat (boiling)
kills vegetative bacterial pathogens, fungi, protozoa, and some virus
dry heat (pressure chamber)
most effective steril­ization is when the steam penetrates the object
not steril­ization kills pathogens
refrig­eration and freeze
freeze - ice crystals puncture cell membranes
filtration (masks)
passing fluid through a sieve designed to trap particles (prevents airborne contam­ination by microbes)
X rays and gamma rays
kills microbes by creating oxygen radicals, breaking DNA, and ionizing.
ultrav­iolet light
nonion­izing, kills microbes by being absorbed by DNA and creating mutations in DNA

resistance to drugs

cells can acquire resistance 2 ways
new mutations, acquiring genes on extra DNA
destroys or deacti­vates drug
prevent entry
changes in structure to slow or stop entry of drug
alter target to the drug to affect binding
metabolic chemistry
resistant drugs can alter or abandon sensitive metabolic steps
resistance pumps
cell pumps antimi­crobial out of cell
unusual proteins
resistance to fluoro­qui­nolone drugs
cross resistance
resistance to one antimi­crobial agent confers resistance to similar drugs

microbial death rates

microbial death
permanent loss of reprod­uction ability when in perfect enviro­nment
how to know if antimi­crobial agent works
calculate microbial death rate(m­icrobes die at constant rate)

action of antimi­crobial agents

alteration of cell wall and membranes
in enveloped membranes when membrane is destroyed no way for viral attach­ments but non enveloped are have more tolerance to this method because of lack of cell wall.
damage to proteins and nucleic acid
extreme heat and chemicals are used to denature the DNA and proteins making the microbe inactive

chemical microbe control

chemical agents
destroy enveloped viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, by affecting their cell walls and membranes, DNA and proteins
rarely used because irritates skin and smelly
by product of phenol (less irrita­tion) it is a low level disinf­ectant
interm­ediate level microbe control that is ineffe­ctive against spores.
interm­ediate level effective agains bacter­ia/­fungal cells and spores, some bacterial endosp­ores, protozoan cysts and some viruses
oxidizing agents
high level release oxygen radicals (toxic oxygen). used to kill anaerobes in deep puncture wounds
surfac­tants (soap)
"­surface active­" chemicals
broad spectrum disinf­ectant (kills many microbe types) inactivate nucleic acids and enzymes
gaseous agents
cold steril­ization for objects that are heat sensitive, penetrate objects readily destroying proteins and DNA
natural chemicals
microbial control produced by organisms

retarding resistance

administer high concen­tra­tions of drug
use antimi­cro­bials in combin­ation
limit use of antimi­cro­bials to necessary cases
develo­pment of new variations of existing drugs (e.g. second genera­tion, third genera­tion)

influences of antimi­crobial treatment

1 number of microbes
2 enviro­nment
3 time of exposure
4 microbial charac­ter­istics

ideal microbe control

inexpe­nsive fast acting and stable agents
controls growth of microbes
harmless to humans animals and objects

3 things to consider

site to be treated
degree of suscep­tib­ility of microbes involved
enviro­nment conditions


drugs acting against a disease
drugs used to treat infection
the use of drugs to treat disease
naturally produced by an organism
antibi­otics chemically altered
completely synthe­sized in a lab

spectrum of antibiotic

narrow spectrum of microbial activity
work against few types of pathogens
broad spectrum of microbial activity
drugs work against many different kinds of pathogens . when pathogen is not able to be identified broad spectrum drug will be used

safety and side effects

disruption of normal microbiota


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