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Introduction to organic chemistry Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a cheat sheet about the core of organic chemistry.

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Formulae of functional groups

The general formula is a formula that represents a homologous series of compounds using letters and numbers.

A homologous series is a group of organic compounds that have the same functional group, the same general formula, and the same chemical proper­ties.

The structural formula is a formula that shows how the atoms are bonded to each carbon atom in a molecule.

The displayed formula is a 2D repres­ent­ation of an organic molecule showing all its atoms (by their symbols) and their bonds (by single, double, or triple bonds).

The skeletal formula is a simplified displayed formula with all the carbon and hydrogen (C-H) bonds removed.

Molecular & Empirical Formulae

The molecular formula shows the number and type of each atom in a molecule Eg. the molecular formula of ethanoic acid is C2H4O2
The empirical formula shows the simplest whole number ratio of the elements present in one molecule of the compound Eg. the empirical formula of ethanol is CH2O

Formulae of functional groups

Formulae of functional groups


Nomenc­lature of Aliphatic Compounds

Functional groups & their nomenc­lature table