Crude Birth Rate
The number of live babies born per thousand of the population per year.
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
Increase in population as birth rate exceeds death rate. The surplus of births over deaths, excluding any changes in population due to migration.
The average period of time a person can expect to live for.
The number of people that live in a population.
Factors Affecting Birth and Death Rate
Factors Encouraging a High Birth Rate
No access to family planning or education
Religious and cultural reasons
Wanting a son (China)
Government policy (Russia, Italy, Australia)
High infant mortality
Factors that Reduce the Birth Rate
Working parents and career opportunity women
Increased medical care, reduced IMR.
Having children later
Government policy (China)
Urbanisation and mechanisation
Factors that cause a High Death Rate
War and conflict
Spread of diseases
Lack of access to health care
High crime rates
Reduced living standards, low quality of life
Factors that Help to Reduce Death Rate
Education and awareness
Government control, prescriptions
Vaccines and disease eradication
Access to clean water
Research and development
Demographic Transition Model
DTM - Evaluation
Can be applied to all countries
Birth rates in several MEDCs have fallen below death rates. This has caused the population to decline which suggests that the model should have a fifth stage.
It provides a starting point to demographic change over time.
The DTM is Eurocentric as the model assumes that all countries pass through the same four stages. It now seems unlikely, however, that Africa and many other LEDCs will ever be industrialised. There are also variables and exceptions such as war that may lead to different results.
The timescales are flexible.
The model assumes the fall in death rate in stage 2 was due to industrialisation. In the UK, however, the death rate rose due to the poor conditions during the industrial revolution. The delayed fall in death rate in many LEDCs is due to the inability for people to afford healthcare. In many countries, the fall in birth rate has been slower in stage 3 due to opposition by religious organisations. Alternatively, in China, the birth rate has fallen sharply due to government intervention.
It’s easy to understand.
The timescale of the model, especially in several South-East Asian countries such as Hong Kong and Malaysia, is being squashed as they develop at a much faster rate than earlier industrialised countries. The UK stayed in stage 2 for over 100 years as social, economic and technological changes were introduced slowly and death rate fell slowly. In many LEDCs, death rate has fallen more rapidly because changes (i.e. the introduction of western medicine) have taken place much more quickly. The birth rate has stayed high and so the population has increased rapidly.
It enables comparisons between countries.
The model does not include the impacts of migration. Countries that grew as a consequence of emigration from Europe (e.g, USA, Canada & Australia) did not pass through the earlier stages of the model.
Level of Dependency
Non-economically active / economically active X 100
Ageing and Youthful Population
Politicians have to consider the grey vote.
High d.r, less economic prosperity
40% of Africa under 15
3 pensioners for every 5 economically active.
Expensive to parents and government
Private pensions, abolish state taxes.
Can look after parents when elderly.
Population structure imbalanced.
Taxes and age of retirement go up.
Pension, free transport.
More likely to protest issues
Retirement homes are expensive.
Volunteers, care packages make jobs.
Migration - Push and Pull Factors
Improved quality of life
Lack of opportunities
Racism & discrimination
Lower crime rate
Migration - Types & Barriers
Migration - The permanent or semi-permanent movement of people from one place of residence to another.
Immigration - The inward movement of people into a country
Emigration - The movement of people away from a country
Human barriers are actions taken by people or nations to prevent movement, this can be done through only allowing certain people into the country due to visas or permits.
Physical barriers include rivers, mountain ranges or even deserts.
Types of Migrant
An internally displaced person is somebody who is fleeing war, drought or famine but remains within their country, if they choose to cross an international border and apply to become a refugee they are known as an asylum seeker.
When an asylum seeker enters another country they can formally seek protection by claiming refugee status from that government. A refugee is someone who is protected from being sent back to their country of origin because of a proven fear of prosecution.
Economic migrants are people moving to improve their chances of getting employment and earning money.
Case Study - Syrian Refugee's to Greece
Unrest in Syria became a war in 2011, as a result there was a large increase in the numbers of people who were internally displaced or became migrants.
The first flow was a ‘trickle’ with around 8000 migrants initially fleeing to Turkey in 2011. By 2014, an estimated 815,000 Syrian migrants had fled to Turkey.
Of Syria’s 22 million people, 6 million are internally displaced and 4.8 million have fled abroad.
Poverty, human rights abuses and increasing violence have encouraged many to leave their homes in Eritrea, Somalia and other countries to make the dangerous trip to Europe.
More barriers are being put up to prevent the migrants moving North (heading for Germany and UK) - some of these fences have imposed caps on the numbers entering. This means more and more people are stranded in Greece, a burden on the relatively poor economy.
What challenges do migrants face?
In the first eight months of 2016, about 240,000 migrants (mostly from Syria) made the crossing to Greece from Turkey. There had only been around 40,000 in 2014. These migrants cannot move any further into Europe as countries have closed their borders. Due to this many are stuck at Greece’s northern border with increasingly unsanitary conditions.
Others are in crowded camps that are not designed for the numbers which have to stay there.
What will happen next?
The future for these migrants are unclear. Those who gain refugee status will move into the other countries that will accept them, such as Germany. Those who do not will be sent back to Turkey.
The pace of dealing with this is slow. It is feared that these conditions will make crime more likely, or raise the number of migrants who may be tempted to join extremist movements.
Migrants do not have time to settle, send their children to schools or to find jobs to contribute to Europe’s economy.
While in the cramped and unsanitary camp conditions, migrants find it very difficult to form communities.
What challenges does Greece face?
High unemployment levels (25% overall, 50% for youths) mean that Greece has one of the weakest economies in the EU. It is having to deal with the migrant crisis largely on its own.
Living conditions and overcrowding in camps have to be tackled but this is difficult due to the constant stream of migrants due to the conflict in Syria. Greece is effectively a holding pen.
Anti-immigrant sentiment is on the rise in many countries. There have been racist attacks on migrants by Greece’s neo-nazi Golden Dawn party. Pressure on Greek tourism and posing direct threat to the national economy. Other claims there has been little impact on tourism.
Ongoing cost of keeping large numbers of migrants whilst other European countries decide how many Syrians they will accept as refugees. Many acts of kindness from Greeks. Giving food and shelter to Hungry, participating in organised boat rescues.