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Theme A - Population Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by


This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


Crude Birth Rate
The number of live babies born per thousand of the population per year.
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
Natural Increase
Increase in population as birth rate exceeds death rate. The surplus of births over deaths, excluding any changes in population due to migration.
Life Expectancy
The average period of time a person can expect to live for.
The number of people that live in a popula­tion.

Factors Affecting Birth and Death Rate

Factors Encour­aging a High Birth Rate
Economic Reasons
No access to family planning or education
Religious and cultural reasons
Wanting a son (China)
Government policy (Russia, Italy, Australia)
Baby booms
High infant mortality
Factors that Reduce the Birth Rate
Working parents and career opport­unity women
Increased medical care, reduced IMR.
Having children later
Religious reasons
Choice (adoption)
Government policy (China)
War/co­nfl­ict­/civil unrest
Fertility issues
Blended families
Urbani­sation and mechan­isation
Factors that cause a High Death Rate
War and conflict
Ageing population
Spread of diseases
Lack of access to health care
High crime rates
Poor diet
No education
Mental health
Reduced living standards, low quality of life
Low infast­rctures
Factors that Help to Reduce Death Rate
Improved healthcare
Education and awareness
More doctors
Government control, prescr­iptions
Vaccines and disease eradic­ation
Access to clean water
Better diets
Better hygiene
Increased wealth
Research and develo­pment
Good infras­tru­cture

Demogr­aphic Transition Model

DTM - Evaluation

Can be applied to all countries
Birth rates in several MEDCs have fallen below death rates. This has caused the population to decline which suggests that the model should have a fifth stage.
It provides a starting point to demogr­aphic change over time.
The DTM is Euroce­ntric as the model assumes that all countries pass through the same four stages. It now seems unlikely, however, that Africa and many other LEDCs will ever be indust­ria­lised. There are also variables and exceptions such as war that may lead to different results.
The timescales are flexible.
The model assumes the fall in death rate in stage 2 was due to indust­ria­lis­ation. In the UK, however, the death rate rose due to the poor conditions during the industrial revolu­tion. The delayed fall in death rate in many LEDCs is due to the inability for people to afford health­care. In many countries, the fall in birth rate has been slower in stage 3 due to opposition by religious organi­sat­ions. Altern­ati­vely, in China, the birth rate has fallen sharply due to government interv­ention.
It’s easy to unders­tand.
The timescale of the model, especially in several South-East Asian countries such as Hong Kong and Malaysia, is being squashed as they develop at a much faster rate than earlier indust­ria­lised countries. The UK stayed in stage 2 for over 100 years as social, economic and techno­logical changes were introduced slowly and death rate fell slowly. In many LEDCs, death rate has fallen more rapidly because changes (i.e. the introd­uction of western medicine) have taken place much more quickly. The birth rate has stayed high and so the population has increased rapidly.
It enables compar­isons between countries.
The model does not include the impacts of migration. Countries that grew as a conseq­uence of emigration from Europe (e.g, USA, Canada & Australia) did not pass through the earlier stages of the model.

Level of Dependency

Non-ec­ono­mically active / econom­ically active X 100

Ageing and Youthful Population

Politi­cians have to consider the grey vote.
High d.r, less economic prosperity
Non-ec­ono­mically active,
40% of Africa under 15
3 pensioners for every 5 econom­ically active.
Expensive to parents and government
Private pensions, abolish state taxes.
Can look after parents when elderly.
Population structure imbala­nced.
Taxes and age of retirement go up.
Widespread disease
Pension, free transport.
More likely to protest issues
Retirement homes are expensive.
Labour pool
Volunt­eers, care packages make jobs.
Jobs created

Migr­ation - Push and Pull Factors

Push Factors
Pull Factors
Poor harvest
Poor housing
Natural disasters
Improved quality of life
Better housing
Lack of opport­unities
Better infras­tru­cture
Corrupt government
No pollution
Racism & discri­min­ation
Lower crime rate

Migration - Types & Barriers

Migration - The permanent or semi-p­erm­anent movement of people from one place of residence to another.
Immigr­ation - The inward movement of people into a country
Emigration - The movement of people away from a country
Human barriers are actions taken by people or nations to prevent movement, this can be done through only allowing certain people into the country due to visas or permits.
Physical barriers include rivers, mountain ranges or even deserts.
Types of Migrant
An inter­nally displaced person is somebody who is fleeing war, drought or famine but remains within their country, if they choose to cross an intern­ational border and apply to become a refugee they are known as an asylum seeker.
When an asylum seeker enters another country they can formally seek protection by claiming refugee status from that govern­ment. A refugee is someone who is protected from being sent back to their country of origin because of a proven fear of prosec­ution.
Economic migrants are people moving to improve their chances of getting employment and earning money.

Case Study - Syrian Refugee's to Greece

Unrest in Syria became a war in 2011, as a result there was a large increase in the numbers of people who were internally displaced or became migrants.
The first flow was a ‘trickle’ with around 8000 migrants initially fleeing to Turkey in 2011. By 2014, an estimated 815,000 Syrian migrants had fled to Turkey.
Of Syria’s 22 million people, 6 million are internally displaced and 4.8 million have fled abroad.
Poverty, human rights abuses and increasing violence have encouraged many to leave their homes in Eritrea, Somalia and other countries to make the dangerous trip to Europe.
More barriers are being put up to prevent the migrants moving North (heading for Germany and UK) - some of these fences have imposed caps on the numbers entering. This means more and more people are stranded in Greece, a burden on the relatively poor economy.
What challenges do migrants face?
In the first eight months of 2016, about 240,000 migrants (mostly from Syria) made the crossing to Greece from Turkey. There had only been around 40,000 in 2014. These migrants cannot move any further into Europe as countries have closed their borders. Due to this many are stuck at Greece’s northern border with increa­singly unsanitary condit­ions.
Others are in crowded camps that are not designed for the numbers which have to stay there.
What will happen next?
The future for these migrants are unclear. Those who gain refugee status will move into the other countries that will accept them, such as Germany. Those who do not will be sent back to Turkey.
The pace of dealing with this is slow. It is feared that these conditions will make crime more likely, or raise the number of migrants who may be tempted to join extremist movements.
Migrants do not have time to settle, send their children to schools or to find jobs to contribute to Europe’s economy.
While in the cramped and unsanitary camp condit­ions, migrants find it very difficult to form commun­ities.
What challenges does Greece face?
High unempl­oyment levels (25% overall, 50% for youths) mean that Greece has one of the weakest economies in the EU. It is having to deal with the migrant crisis largely on its own.
Living conditions and overcr­owding in camps have to be tackled but this is difficult due to the constant stream of migrants due to the conflict in Syria. Greece is effect­ively a holding pen.
Anti-i­mmi­grant sentiment is on the rise in many countries. There have been racist attacks on migrants by Greece’s neo-nazi Golden Dawn party. Pressure on Greek tourism and posing direct threat to the national economy. Other claims there has been little impact on tourism.
Ongoing cost of keeping large numbers of migrants whilst other European countries decide how many Syrians they will accept as refugees. Many acts of kindness from Greeks. Giving food and shelter to Hungry, partic­ipating in organised boat rescues.