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GCSE Food preparation and nutrition: Food safety Cheat Sheet by

Food safety and personal hygiene.

Key words

A unicel­lular microo­rga­nism: can be beneficial or harmful
Danger zone
A range of temper­atures in which bacteria can grow and thrive
Getting progre­ssively worse over-time
When harmful bacteria is present in food
Speed up reactions
High-risk foods
Foods at higher risk of contam­ina­tion: typically high in protein and moisture
Low-risk foods
Foods at lower risk of contam­ina­tion: typically high in sugar, low in protein
Micros­copic organisms
Length of time a product remains useable

The 4 Cs

. Make sure the food is cooked thouro­ughly (espec­ially meat) so any harmful bacteria can be killed.
. Some foods need to be chilled so that bacteria cannot grow
. Make sure that raw and cooked food are separated. Use different equipment for different food groups
. Clean and disinfect work surfaces between tasks and clean hands thoroughly

Key temper­atures

. 18°C - Min temper­ature of the freezer
. 0°C - Bacteria dormant
. 0°C-5°C - Fridge temper­ature range
. 5°C - The lower limit of the danger zone
. 63°C - Upper limit of the danger zone
. 70°C - Core temper­ature of cooked food for 2mins at thickest part
. 75°C - Core temper­ature of food for 30secs at thickest part. Min temp of reheated food
. 100°C - Boiling point. Bacteria dies
The 4 conditions required for bacterial growth are nutrients, time, moisture and warmth.

Personal Hygiene Rules

. Hair should be tied up/covered
. Hands should be washed
. No coughi­ng/­sne­ezing near food
. No jewellery
. By following these personal hygiene rules, germs won't spread.

Main causes of food poisoning

. Microwaves don't evenly heat food
. Use of cooked­/ch­illed foods
. Food not stored at the correct temper­atures
. Poor personal hygiene
. Food not heated at the correct temper­ature

High/Low risk foods

High risk foods are high in protein and moisture
Low risk foods are high in sugar and low in protein and moisture
Examples include:
Examples include:
Poultry, seafood, meats, cheese, cooked rice, soups, milk
Jam, syrup, marmalade, sweets, icing, raw potatoes, dried pasta, carrots
Have a best before date: the product can still be eaten after that

Types of food poisoning bacteria

Poultry, eggs
Raw meat, Raw milk
Raw, proces­sesed and cooked foods
Bacillus cereus
Cereals, especially rice


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