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common protocols and standards Cheat Sheet by

common protocols for OCR GCSE computing


a protocol governs the transport of data on the internet

common protocols

TCP - transm­ission control protocol
breaks up messages, reasse­mbles, detects errors and resends lost messages
IP- internet protocol
routes packets around the internet from one IP address to another
HTTP- hypertext transfer protocol
used for accessing and receiving webpages
HTTPS - hypertext transfer protocol secure
the inform­ation is encrypted so if it interc­epted it cannot be understood
FTP- file transfer protocol
used for sending and receiving files
IMAP- Internet message access protocol
leaves mesage on the server and syncs with all of your devices, can only be deleted if user deletes email
POP/3- post office protocol/3
downloads every new message to local device so it is no longer available on the server
SMTP- simple mail transfer protocol
used for sending emails

the TCP/IP protocol stack aka layers

applic­ation layer
applic­ations such as email clients and web browsers create data to send in this layer. SMTP, FTP and HTTP operate in this layer
transport layer
the transport layer creates the connection between two computers, or ‘hosts’. data is then divided up into packets and given a packet number. packets are reasse­mbled by the recipi­ent’s transport layer. lost packets are resent. This layer uses TCP.
internet layer
the Internet layer is respon­sible for routing packets. routers operate on this layer
link layer
the link layer is respon­sible for transp­orting inform­ation between nodes on the network.
- self-c­ont­ained
- the functi­onality of one layer can be changed without affecting another
- senders and receivers can use different hardware and software but can commun­icate using the same layer protocols


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