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Biology : The process of Replication Cheat Sheet by

Defined the basics of Replication and Enzymes used in Replication.


DNA replic­ation is the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division.


Basic Process of DNA Replic­ation

1. Activation of Deoxyr­ibo­nuc­leo­tides
2. Unwinding of DNA
3.Reco­gnition of Initiation Point
4.Form­ation of RNA primers
5.Base Pairing
6.Conv­ersion of Deoxyr­ibo­nuc­leotide tripho­sphate to monoph­osphate
7.Form­ation of new DNA chains on RNA primers
8.Editing and Proof reading and DNA Repair

Enzymes used

Topois­ome­rase- SS DNA bread= Release tension
Helicase- Separation of two strands
Primase- RNA Primer synthesis
SSBP- Stops two strands from forming bonds.
DNA Polyme­rase- Forms nucleo­tides or adds nucleo­tides to new strands.
DNA ligase- Seals the DNA

Activation of Deoxxy­rib­onu­cle­otide

AMP,GM­P,T­MP,CMP that are monoph­osp­hates of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine are activated by Phosph­ory­lation into tripho­sphate by uniting with ATP.

Recogn­ition of initiation point

Specific initiator proteins recognise the initiation point of DNA.

Base Pairing

Purines (A and G) pairs with Pyrimi­dines (C and T) by hydrogen bond.
A forms double bond with T and G forms triple bond with C.

Formation of new DNA chains on RNA primers

This energy is utilised in joining the adjacent nucleo­tides to form polynu­cle­otides chains.
Process is catalysed by DNA Polyme­rase, Mn++ and Mg++ ions.

Formation of RNA Primers

DNA directed RNA polymerase synthe­sises a short priming strand of RNA called Primer.
Enzyme Primase brings all polyme­ris­ation of RNA Primer.

Unwinding of DNA

Helicase binds to ORI (Origin of Replic­ation)
Topois­omerase helps in making nick in DNA molecule at the origin. It can also reseal.
To stablise single strand of DNA- Single stranded binding protei­ns(­SSBP) gets attached

Conversion of tripho­sphates to monoph­osp­hates

Enzyme Pyroph­osp­hatase hydrolyses the pyroph­osphate into inorganic phosphate and energy.

Editing and Proof reading and DNA Repair

If any wrong base gets incorp­orated during DNA Replic­ation, it is removed by DNA Polyme­rase.
DNA Ligase joins newly synthe­sised DNA.


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