Show Menu
Cheatography

Linux Terminal Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet by

Common linux terminal commands and keyboard short-cuts

Terminal Programs

iterm2
Download, install and use iterm2 instead of the default MacOS terminal
double click + CMD-v
double click text to copy and then CMD-v to paste
zsh
install and use z shell instead of bash
oh my zsh
install oh my zsh to easily configure zsh
~/.zshrc
include common aliases and other shell config­uration here
plugin­s=(git node npm kubectl)
add these shell completion plugins to .zshrc
ZSH_TH­EME­="ro­bby­rus­sel­l"
alias abc=cmd
run cmd when you type abc

Shell Shortcuts

CTRL-c
Stop the current command
CTRL-a
Go to start of line
CTRL-e
Go to end of line
CTRL-r
Search command history
CTRL-l
Clear the screen
!!
Run last command
!abc
Run last command that starts with abc

Shell Variables

env
Show all enviro­nment variables
echo $ABC
Show a specific enviro­nment variables
ABC=123
Create a local variable
export ABC=123
Create a variable accessible by child processes
$NODE_ENV
Used node.js code; expects value to be production or anything else
$HOME
Home directory

IO Redire­ction

cmd < file
cmd receives contents of file as input (stdin)
cmd > file
cmd output (stdout) is written to file
cmd > /dev/null
discard cmd output
cmd >> file
append cmd output to end of file
cmd 2> file
cmd error output (stderr) is written to file
cmd 2>&1
send cmd error output (stderr) to the standard output (stdout)
cmd 2>&1 > file
cmd output (stdout) and error output (stderr) is sent to file
cmd 2>&1 | grep abc
search cmd output and error output for abc
cmd | cmd2
cmd2 receives output from cmd as input

Process Management

cmd1 ; cmd2
run cmd1 and then cmd2, regardless of cmd1 exit status
cmd1 && cmd2
run cmd1; run cmd2 if cmd1 is successful
cmd1 || cmd2
run cmd1; run cmd2 if cmd1 is not successful
cmd &
run cmd in the background
CTRL-z
cause currently running command to sleep
bg
continue running sleeping command in background
fg
move command running in the backgr­ound, to run in the foreground
jobs
list all currently running processes
fg 2
move the second command listed by jobs, to run in the foreground
 

Directory Commands

mkdir abc
Create directory named abc
mkdir -p abc
Create directory if it does not exist
mkdir -p abc/xy­z/123
Create all direct­ories and subdir­ect­ories if they do not exist
pwd
Show the current directory
cd abc
Change to directory abc
cd ..
Change to the parent directory
cd ../xyz
Change to the sibling directory xyz
cd -
Change back to previous directory
ls
List files in directory
ls -la
List files, including dot-files, with extra info
ls -lhSr
List files in reverse size order; w/friendly size

File Operations

touch file
update file last modified date; create file if not exists
cat file
output contents of file
less file
paged output contents of file
cp file1 file2
copy file1 to file2
mv file1 file2
mv file1 to file2
rm file
delete file
head -5 file
show the first 5 lines of file
tail -5 file
show the last 5 lines of file
tail -f file
show the last few lines of the file and follow output

Command help

tldr
man cmd
get command docume­ntation
cmd -h OR cmd --help
get help from the command

Finding Files

find .
list all files and direct­ories under the current directory and subdir­ect­ories
find . -type f
list all files under the current directory and subdir­ect­ories
find . -type f -iname 'abc'
list all files that have abc (case insens­itive) in the file name
find . -type f -maxdepth 3
list all files up to 3 direct­ories in depth
find . -type f -mmin -5
list files that were modified in the last 5 minutes
find . -type f -iname "abc" -exec cmd {} \;
run cmd on each file that contains abc; use {} in place of the filename; end the command with backsl­ash­+se­mi-­colon
find . -type f -iname 'abc' -exec chown root {} \;
make root the owner of all abc files
grep -Er 'this|­that' src/
find files under the src/ dir that contain "­thi­s" or "­tha­t"
grep -Er -l 'test' src/
list files only that contain 'test'
grep -Er -h 'test' src/
list lines in files only that contain 'test'

Text Manipu­lation

cut -d, -f1
split input by comma and output the first field
cut -d' ' -f2-5
split input by space and return the fields 2, 3, 4, 5
cut -c1-10
return the first 10 characters of each line of input
sort
sort each line of input alphab­eti­cally
sort -n
sort each line of input numeri­cally
sort -nr
sort each line of input numeri­cally, descending (reverse)
uniq
return only one line for each duplicate adjacent line of input
uniq -c
same as above, but includes a count of how many times the line appears
sed -E -e 's/thi­s/t­hat/' file
replace the first instance of "­thi­s" with "­tha­t" on each line in file
sed -E -e 's/thi­s/t­hat/g' file
replace all instances of "­thi­s" with "­tha­t" on each line in file
sed -i.bak -E -e 's/thi­s/t­hat/g' file
same as above, but modifies file in place, and creates a backup
awk '{ print $2 }'
print out the second field in each line

Simple Regular Expres­sions

.
match any character once
*
match the preceding character 0 or more times
+
match the preceding character 1 or more times
?
match the preceding character 0 or 1 time
()
group patterns
|
match the pattern on the left OR right
^
match the start of the line
$
match the end of the line
 

Common Command Combos

 

tmux

 

vim

 

emacs

 

git

 
   
 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          Linux Basics Cheat Sheet
          Full Bash Shortcuts Cheat Sheet