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Basic High School Chemistry

Gas Laws & Conditions

760 Torrs  =  760 mmHg  =  1 atm

P = pressure               V = volume  
T = temper­ature        n = moles

Boyle's Law (P⇅V): P₁V₁ = P₂V₂
Charles' Law (T⇈V): (V₁/T₁) = (V₂/T₂)
Avogadro's Law (M⇈V): (V₁/n₁) = (V₂/n₂)

Static Condit­ions:
PV = nRT    
R = 0.0821 L⁎atm/­mol⁎K

note: units should be L, K, atm, & mol

Dalton's Law Pressure:
= P
+ P
+ P
+ P...

Types of Branches

Alkyl Branches: named based on # of carbon contained
have a -yl ending

CH₃ methyl branch
CH₂CH₃ ethyl branch
CH₂CH₂CH₃ propyl branch

Halogen Branches: from group 17 of periodic table

F - fluoro
Cl - chloro
Br - bromo
I - iodo

Units of Conversion

100 centim­eters
= 1 meter
1,000 millim­eters
= 1 meter
10,000 microm­eters
= 1 meter
1,000,000 nanometers
= 1 meter
1,000 meters
= 1 kilometer

Density Equation

= (m/v) g/mL 3


= 4.184kJ
= 1 kcal
=1000 cal
Kinetic Energy
= (1/2) mv2
= Co + 273.15
Specific Heat (q)
= ms△T
(△ change in temp.)
= 9 kcal/g
= 4 kcal/g
= 4 kcal/g
Liquid ⟶ Solid
= freezing
Solid ⟶ Gas
= sublim­ation
Gas ⟶ Liquid
= conden­sation
Solid⟶ Liquid
= melting
Liquid ⟶ Gas
= deposition
Gas ⟶ Solid
= vapori­zation

Molarity & Concen­tration

Molarity = moles ÷ L
Dilution: M₁V₁ = M₂V₂

Acids & Bases

Arrhenius Acids
increase H⁺ / increases protons / increases H₃O⁺
Arrhenius Bases
increase OH- (hydro­xide)
Simple Acids
H + element off periodic table (e.g. HCl)
H + polyatomic ion (e.g. HNO₃)
Naming Acids: Drop the ending in simple acids and add "-ic acid" ex: Hydroc­hloric Acid
If the polyatomic ion ends in "­-it­e", change to "-ous acid" ex: Chlorous Acid
Note: Strong acids and strong bases dissociate comple­tely.

pH & Relative Acidity

Calcul­ating Hydroxide: 1x10-14=[H₃O+][OH-]
pH Equation: pH = - log[H+]
Finding pH from Hydroxide Equation: solve for H₃O+, then solve for pH.

Interm­ole­cular Attractive Forces

Hydrogen Bonding - Strongest of the three. Requires an H to be directly bonded to an N, O, or F within a molecule.

Dipole­-Dipole - During the next two sections of this module we’ll learn to ID molecules with this IMF. Molecules with dipole­-dipole forces have a permanent positive and negative “sided­ness” or polarity.

Dispersion Forces - Weakest of the three. All molecules have dispersion forces, but they’re the primary (stron­gest) forces for nonpolar molecules.

IMF Strength:
D ➠ D-D ➠ HB

Reactions of Alkenes

Calcul­ating Abundance

(mass x abundance %)   +   (mass x abundance %)
Note:abundance must be calculated by a decimal (moving decimal place two times to the front)

Molecular Prefixes

1   =   mono
2   =   di
3   =   tri
4   =   tetra
5   =   penta
6   =   hexa
7   =   hepta
8   =   octa
9   =   nona
10   =   deca
Note: Ending of last element is replaced by -ide.
Example: CO₂ - carbon dioxide SF₆ - sulfur hexafl­uoride

Percent Yield

PY = (Actual Yield (g) x 100) ÷ (Theor­etical Yield (g))

Ionic Compounds

Acetate   ⟶   (C₃H₃O₂)-1
Nitrate   ⟶   (NO₃)-1
Chlorate   ⟶   (ClO₃)-1
Chlorate   ⟶   (ClO₄)-1
Ammonium   ⟶   (NH₄)+1
Hydronium   ⟶   (H₃O)-1
Carbonate   ⟶   (CO₃)-2
Phosphate   ⟶   (PO₄)-3
Hydroxide   ⟶   (OH)-1
Sulfate   ⟶   (SO₄)-2
Contains : a metal and/or a polyatomic ion
Note: Cations come first (+) and Anions come last (-)
Ion Charges (excep­tions): Al ⟶ +3 Zn⟶ +2
Writing Formulas: Cation keeps the name off periodic table while anion ends in -ide.

Hydroc­arbon Alkanes

Functional Groups List

Relating IMF Strength

As IMF strength increases:
➀ Boiling point (B.P.) will require higher temper­ature to boil.
➁ Melting point (M.P.) will require higher temper­ature to melt.
➂ Solubility in water will increase (like dissolves like, and water exhibits H-bonding, a strong IMF)
➃ Volati­lity, how readily a substance will go to the gas phase, will decrease.

IMF ⤊ B.P. ⤊ M.P. ⤊ Solubility in Water ⤋ Volatility

Types of Reactions

Decomp­osition Reaction
ex: 2HgO(s­)→2­Hg(­l)+­O₂(g)
Combustion Reaction
ex: C₃H₇(g­)+5­O₂(­g)→­3CO­₂(g­)+4­H₂O(g)
Single­-Re­pla­cement Reaction
ex: Zn(s)+­2HC­l(a­q)→­ZnC­l₂(­aq)­+H₂(g)
Double­-Re­pla­cement Reaction
ex: Na₂S(a­q)+­2HC­l(a­q)→­2Na­Cl(­aq)­+H₂S(g)
Combin­ation Reaction
ex: 2Na(s)­+Cl­₂(g­)→2­NaCl(s)
Note: ∆⟶ reaction is heated up
hλ ⟶ energy is added in form of light

Strong Acids

Notes: Molecular substances act as nonele­ctr­olytes. Soluble Ionic substances make for strong electr­olytes.

Balanced equations with double­-sided arrows (⟷) rules an electr­olyte is weak because it dissoc­iates and recomb­ines.

Conversion Roadmap

mass ⟶ moles (use molar mass)
moles ⟶ molecules (use Avogadro's number)
molecules ⟶ atoms (use chemical formula)
Note: Avogadro's Number 6.022x1023


Step #1: Balance Equation
Step #2: Given mass, convert with moles
Step #3: Perform Stoich­iom­etry, convert back to mass at the end if needed.


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