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Practical Research 2 Cheat Sheet by

Practical Research Periodical test Reviewer

Quanti­tative Research

Focuses on the relati­onship between variables
Analysis are based on statis­tical summary of data

Importance of Qualit­ative Research

determine proper time to open a branch, can help businesses strategize
provide solutions to social proble­ms,deal with societal behaviours and issues
Engineers, Architects and Other builders
helps providing designs, create new materials and better procedures

Charac­ter­istics of Quanti­tative Research

seeks accurate measur­ement and analysis, not based on intuition and guesses, data are gathered before proposing conclusion
Clearly Defined Research Questions
know in advance what are the questions needed, well defined and carefully designed
Structured Research Instru­ments
questi­ona­irres to collect measurable data
Numerical Data
uses table, charts, graphs and figures.
Large Sample Size
uses large sample size to avoid bias in the results
can be repeated for verifi­cation and confir­mation
Future Outcomes
if then scenarios can be made to predict future results

Strengths and Weaknesses of Quanti

Requires a large number of respon­dents
Easily Unders­tan­dable Data
Numerical Data can be Analyzed
Inform­ation factors for interp­reting results are usually ignored
Sensitive Inform­ation are hard to gather
Data from surveys might be inaccurate or incomplete

Kinds of Quanti­tative Research

describes charac­ter­istics of target population
Correl­ational Research
measures two variables and understand the statis­tical relati­onship of it.
involves manipu­lation of variables but no random assign­ments of partic­ipants to certain conditions
True Experi­mental
adheres to scientific design, has hypoth­esis, has variables that can be measured and done in controlled enviro­nment
True experi­mental

Types of Variables

cause variable, changes on it affect dependent variable
outcome variable, changes on indepent variable affects DV.
can be an infinite number on its value has two types.
has limited number of distinct values and cannot be divided into fractions
Variable- a charac­ter­istic that is subject to change and can have more than one value.
Ex age, intell­egence, motivation etc.

Types of Discrete Variable

Nominal Variable
no quanti­tative value, can be group or catego­rized
Ordinal Variable
has categories that can be ranked.

Types of Continous Variable

no clear defini­tions of zero, values have meaning
clear defini­tions of zero, values have meaning
Interval - temper­ature, IQ scores, Time
Ratio - length, height, width

Research for Daily Life(R­esearch Ventures)

Type of Data
Analytical Method
What is my research Problem?
What statis­tical method will I use(me­an,­med­ian­,mode etc.))
What kind of Variables will I use?
What research tools will I use?
What hypothesis will my research have?

Things to consider when starting a research

Properly defining a research problem
Source of a proble­m(p­ressing issues and current events)
Wide reading and Film Criticism
Social Networking
Previous Research Findings

Designing A research topic

Choose a broad topic
intere­sti­ng,­sig­nif­icant and relevant to your field
Do prelim­inary research
read journals, articles, past researches etc.
Define the problem
list questions that you want to research,
Refine the question
narrow down your question by limiting the popula­tion, place,­period etc.

Research Title

contains the fewest possible words and enough to describe the whole paper without misleading the readers.

Guide for writing research title

Determine what is needed to be accomplish in the study
One to two sentences that states the objectives
Include important keywords and variables
Shorten into a simpler phrase or a single word
Main thought of the study retained.
Coorect grammar and punctu­ation errors.
Observe proper formatting

Background of the study

is the part of your paper where you inform the reader of the context of the study.

Research Gap

-missing inform­ation, can be other variables, condit­ion­s,p­opu­lations etc.

Background of the study guides

studioes must not be discussed in full details
the length and depth background inform­ation depends on the amount of how much the reader should know
defining the topic and audience
Cites sources and put quotation marks in verbatim quotes
Keep your bg focused and balanced
should critical, consistent and logically struct­ured.

Difference of Research bg and introd­uction

Research Background
In depth discussion on the topic
Prelim­inary data about your topic
No such mandatory format
End with your research questions, aims and objectives
Introd­uctory part of paper with the purpose of relaying the importance of the research paper
More compre­hensive and thoroughly discuss the studies mentioned in the bg of research

Research Questions

General Research
derived from the research problem
Specific Research
anchored on the general research problem

Types of research questions

Qualit­ative Research
Quanti­tative Research
how and why of things
"­wha­t" and exact quanti­fiable answer.

Importance of Research Questions

key to the research study
research discussion begins and end in research questions
if research question is wrong, the study is also wrong
Research Questions - help to clarify and specify the research problem.

Charac­ter­istics of Good research Question

can be done and possible
unders­tan­dable and specific
contri­butes to an issue or to society
consider welfare of people, animals and whoever involved in the study

Scope and Delimi­tations

What to include, the coverage of the study
What to exclude, the factors not included and not will be dealt in the study.

Components of Scope and Delimi­tation

Topic of the study
Objectives or problems to be addressed
Time frame
Locale of the study
Charac­ter­istics of the study
Methods and Research Instru­ments

Differ­ences of Delimi­tation and Limitation

limita­tions that arose during the study
variables included before the conduct of the study

Statement of the problem

-Gives the reader and user of the research important inform­ation
-Provides focus in the research
-shows the value of the statement.

Guides in statement of the problem

Should be resear­chable
should not contain insuffient detail and inform­ation
Be important
not to general nor too specific
Indicate the type of research
include terms that are easily unders­tan­dable

Definition of terms

-section where how the terms or words are used in study.
-must be alphab­etical

3 ways of Writing Definition of terms

meaning attributed to the word and understood by many people
meaning of the concep­t/terms and how it is used in the study
rules and procedure the invest­igators will use

Two types of research framework

Conceptual Framework
actual ideas, beliefs and theories that supports the study
Theore­tical Framework
anchored on time-t­ested theories that relate to the findings of the invest­igation

Research Framework

-structure or blueprint of the research plan
-Has two types

Difference between research frameworks

Theore­tical Framework
Conceptual Framework
broader, can be used in different studies
narrowed, directly related to a specific study
theory used already in the field
related concepts for specific study
presents one theory
synthesize two or more theories
already existing before conduct of the study
developed while planning and writing a specific research

Review of Related Literature

-to find what is already known in the topic
-to give readers a critical overview of what you found out
-to find the gaps or missing info

Steps in writing RRL

Search for relevant literature
Evaluate and Select sources
Identify themes, debates and gaps
Outline your literature review's structure
Write it

In text Citation and refere­ncing Styles

American Psycho­logical Associ­ati­on(APA)
education, psychology and sciences
Chicago Manual of Style(­CMS))
business, history and the fine arts
Vancouver Style of Reference
Health sciences
Modern Language Associ­ation

In-text Citation style

Chicago Style
usage of footnotes
number tracking, number refers to unique sources
clear and consistent presen­tation, has certain guidelines that should be observed
brief parent­hetical citation

APA formatting

Full Surname, Initials of first and middle
Italicized the title
Copyright date
after author's name
Publishing date
usually after author's name too
More than one author
list them all down in the order they appear
More than three authors
use et al. after the first author
use the first name found
thesis, disser­tations and other unpubl­ished works
name of references written
Online materials
retrieved from is no longer necessary, only link is needed.


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