The Respiration System and Ventillation
The process of breathing out
Disease caused by smoking
1. Intercostal muscles and diaphragm realx.
1. It can cause cancer
2. Throrax volume decreases
2. It can cause lung diseases by damiging your airways and the alvioli found in the lungs
3. Air is forced out
3. It affects the heart and blod vessesl
Aerobic Respiration in plants
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Internal Structure of a Leaf
Adaptation of leaves
1. Leaves are broad so there's large surface area exposed to light
2. Most of the chloroplasts are found in the palisade layer so it can get the most light
3. The upper epidemis is transparent so that light can pass through it to the palisade layer
4. Leaves have a network of vascular bundles which deliver water and it helps support the leaf structure
5. The waxy cuticle helps to reduce water loss by evaporation
Rate of Photosynthesis
Chlorophyll uses light energy to perform photosynthesis
CO2 is one of the raw materials needed for photosynthesis
Temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis because it affects the enzymes involved
Experiment to measure the rate of p/s
Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease e.g certain types of bacteria and viruses
Plants, Animals and Bacteria
Single-celled and microscopic
Have chloroplasts which means they can photosynthesise
Some can photosynthesise
They have cell walls made out of cellulose
No cell walls
Store carbohydrates as sucrose or starch
Store carbohydrates as glycogen
They feed off other organisms - both living and dead
Most have nervous coordination and can move around.
They have circular chromosomes of DNA
Osmosis is the net mocement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water consentration to a region of lower water concentration
Active Transport is the net movement of particles against a concentration gradient using energy released during respiration. Oxygen is essential because of respiration
Test for Glucose and Starch
Benedict's test for Glucose
Iodine test for Starch
- Add Benedict's reagent (blue) to a sample and heat it. Make sure the solution doesn't boil.
- Just add iodine solution to the test sample
■ If Glucose is present it will form a coloured precipitate
■ If starch is present the sampe changes from browny-yellow to blue-black colour
■ Blue -> Green -> Yellow -> Orange -> Brick Red
■ If there is no starch it stays browny-yellow
Contain nitrogen for making amino acids and proteins. These are needed for cell growth.
To help the enzymes needed for photosynthesis and respiration.
The variable you CHANGE
The variable you MEASURE
Measure x 2
Same x 2
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