Probability Terms
Sample space 
The set of all possible outcomes (e.g 1,2,3,4,5,6 on a normal dice) 
Equally likely outcomes 
A situation in which all outcomes have the same chance of occuring 
Mutually exclusive events 
These events have no outcomes in common 
Non mutually exclusive events 
These events have at least one outcome in common 
Probability can be expressed in fraction, decimal or percentage form.
Complementary Events
Luke's chance of clearing the high jump is 7/10. Luke's chance of not clearing the high jump is? 1 (10)  7/10 = 3/10 P(not clearing the high jump)

We have a bag with 9 red marbles, 2 blue marbles, and 3 green marbles. What is the probability of not selecting a blue marble? Number of total marbles = 14 Blue marbles = 2 1 (14)  2 = 12/14 P(non blue marbles)

Probability Information
A "standard" deck of playing cards consists of 52 Cards in each of the 4 suits of Spades, Clubs (black suite), Hearts, and Diamonds (red suite). Each suit contains 13 cards: Ace, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Jack, Queen, King. Ace may or may not be higher than King.
To convert 12 hour time to 24 hour time follow these rules. For AM times, leave the times the same except for single digit hours in which a 0 is written at the front. For PM times, add 12 to the hour digits. 
Time Zones
What is the time in London, when it is 9am in Sydney? (Sydney is 10 hours ahead) London time = Sydney time  10 hours 9am  10h = 11pm in London

What is the time in Sydney, when it is 9am in London? (London is 10 hours behind) Sydney time = London time + 10 hours 9am + 10h = 7pm in Sydney

Volume of Prisms
Rectangular prisms 
Length x Width x Height 
Triangular prisms 
Area of triangle x Height 
Any other prism 
Area x Height (area of the cross section and height is the height of the prism) 
If the question tells you to, find the area of the shape's cross section and then times the amount by the height to get the volume. Remember to add cubed units to the answer.


Area of Plane Shapes
Rectangle 
Width x Height (or wh) 
Square 
a² (a = length of side) 
Triangle 
1/2 x Base x Height (or bh) 
Trapezium 
1/2 x (side a+ side b) 
Parallelogram 
Base x Height (or bh) 
Rhombus/Kite 
Side A x Side B / 2 
For a composite shape, split the shape into already known shapes and use their respective methods to find the area (add the areas together).
Remember to add squared units with the answer.
Volume and Capacity Conversions
Cubic Millimetres 
mm³ 
Cubic Millimetres 
cm³ 
1cm³ = 1000m³ 
Cubic Metres 
m³ 
1m³ = 1000 000 cm³ 
Mililitre 
mL 
1mL = 1cm³ 
Litres 
L 
1L = 1000ml = 1000cm³ 
Kilolitres 
kL 
1kL = 1000L = 1m^{3} 
Megalitres 
ML 
1ML = 1000kL = 1000 000L 
Index Notation
m x m m^{2}

5 x n x n x n 5n^{3}

When a pronumeral is multiplied by itself a number of times we can simplify the expression using index notation.
Remember to substitute if necessary.
Dividing Algebraic Terms
30a / 2a Divide the numbers first, so 30 / 2 = 15. Next, cancel out the pronumerals. A goes into A, which gives us just 15.

12ab / 6a^{2} Divide the numbers first, so 12 / 6 equals 2. Next, cancel out the pronumerals. A goes into A but B does not go into A. This gives us 2b / a.

Remember to always write the dividing algebraic terms in fraction form.
Factorising Algebraic Terms
3a + 12 3 x a + 3 x 4 is the expanded form. The factorised form is 3(a + 4).

6m + 9 First, find the HCF. In this case, it is 3. Put the HCF out the front of a pair of brackets. Find what the HCF is multiplied by to get each term. So we end up getting 3(2m + 3)

Factorising is the reverse form of expanding. A good way to check your factorisation is by expanding your answer it to see if you get the original expression


Adding and Subtracting Like Terms
5x  2y  3x + 7y Move the terms with the same pronumeral next to each other. So we get 5x  3x  2y + 7y
Simplify and you get 2x + 5y

7ab  3bc + 2ab Move the terms with the same pronumeral next to each other. So we get 7ab + 2ab  3bc
Simplify and you get 9ab  3bc

Only like terms can be added or subtracted together.
Multiplying Algebraic Terms
10 x 3n 10 x 3 = 30 30 x n = 30n

20n x 3mn 20 x 3 = 60 60 x n x n x m = 60n^{2}m

Remember to multiply the numbers first, then multiply the pro numerals (or add it to the end of the product).
Negative and positive rules also apply to any problems.
Negative and Positive Rules
Expanding Algebraic Terms
5(y + 3) + 2y 5 x y = 5y 5 x 3 = 15 5y + 2y = 7y Expanded form is 7y + 15

3(a + 4) + 2(5  a) 3 x a = 3a 3 x 4 = 12 2 x 5 = 10 2 x a = 2a 3a + 2a = a 12 + 10 = 22 Expanded form is a + 22

To write an expression without grouping symbols, multiply each term inside the grouping symbols by the term outside. Watch out for expressions that have negative signs outside the grouping symbols

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