Properties of Life
growth and development
response to the environment
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cell
plants, animals, fungi, protists
Formation of Macromolecules
create necklace, water produced
take necklace apart, water consumed
energy and storage
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Storage and Energy
glucose + glucose
glucose + fructose
glucose + galactose
Starch is a chain of glucose. Cellulose is made of multiple chains of glucose with hydrogen bonding to connect the chains.
The G Things
ALL fatty acids
Jenna needs energy, made of glucose
sugar in the blood is GONE
Mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells, may have gained entry as undigested prey or parasites. In a world that was increasingly aerobic, host benefited from endosymbiont that could use oxygen to create energy. This led to the formation of a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondria. Plant cells were developed from eukaryotic cells with photosynthetic prokaryote.
What structural protein is secreted outside of cells making up 40% of the protein in your body?
insulin isn't produced, beta pancreatic cells damaged
insulin/glucose receptors not working
Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Antagonist to insulin is glucagon.
Convert all %s to describe solvent, think about concentration gradient of solvent.
Hypertonic - full of things
Hypotonic - empty of things
What kind of materials can travel through membrane passively?
Non-polar molecules and water.
Why can steroid hormones pass through membranes?
Phosphorylation is the transfer of a phosphate from ATP to another molecule.
Hierarchy of Organization
Community is a bunch of populations, ecosystem is those populations and abiotic factors.
fatty acids, glycerol
long-term energy storage
Saturated fats are found in animals, unsaturated found in plants and is healthier. Trans fat is structured like a unsaturated fat, but straightened like a saturated fat.
Head of phospholipid is hydrophilic, tail hydrophilic. Fats are more concentrated amounts of energy than carbohydrates.
amino acids (different R groups)
shape determines function
Destroyed via denaturation. Must be in specific temp and pH.
chain (covalent bonds)
alpha helix, beta sheet (hydrogen bonds)
Digestion, disposal and recycling of material. Malfunction can result in Tay-Sachs disease.
straight, hollow tubes
shape and support cell tracks along which organelles with motor proteins move, flagella and cilia
form 3D network inside plasma membrane, supporting cell shape
reinforce cell shape, anchor organelles
Stages of Hormone Signaling
2. Signal transduction
Water/Lipid-Soluble Hormone Signaling
Enzymes are selective in the reaction it catalyzes. It can be a protein or RNA. The specific reactant it acts on is the substrate, which fits into the active site on the enzyme. Cofactors are helps that bind to the active site and function in catalysis. Coenzymes are organic cofactors. This speeds up reactions.
Competitive inhibitors block the active site whereas noncompetitive inhibitors reshape the enzyme.
cytoplasm, 2 net ATP
citric acid cycle
matrix, 2 ATP
inner mitochondrial membrane, ~28 ATP
Major Themes of Biology
emergent properties of life's hierarchy & systems that arise
structure and function
exchange of matter and energy
Theory, Hypothesis, Law
Theory - widely accepted explanatory idea that is supported by a body of evidence
Hypothesis - testable explanation for a set of observations based on the available data
Law - statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe
Law describes, theory and hypothesis explain.
Deductive: general --> specific
Inductive: specific --> general
Sherlock utilizes inductive reasoning. He's in the "in" and knows the details.
nucleic acids, DNA, RNA
hydrogen bonds (form helix), covalent bonds (form backbone)
contains genetic information, DNA
direct protein synthesis, controlling cell's acticities
chromatin - complex of proteins and DNA
nuclear envelope - double membrane enclosing nucleus
nucleolus - where rRNA is synthesized
proteins that function w/in cytosol
proteins that are inserted into membranes, packaged in certain organelles, exported from cell
Smooth & Rough ER
variety of metabolic processes, synthesis of lipids, process harmful substances, storage of calcium ions
secrete proteins, makes membranes
Functions of Cell Structures
structural support, movement, communication
What if a cell has too many aquaporins?
Too much water will be absorbed, body tissues will swell.
Exocytosis & Endocytosis
Types of Endocytosis
Phagocytosis takes in large molecules, taking them to lysosome via vacuole. Receptor-mediated endocytosis takes in specific solutes, forming a vacuole and then releasing the solute into cytoplasm.