Focused on measuring direct effects of media on people.
Sometimes called administrative research
Short Term behavioural effects (Bobo Doll)
Long Term behavioural effects - Cultivation Theory
Instead of looking at what effects media have on people, focused on understanding why people selected certain media and what made it gratified.
Needs from Gratifications Model
Says we are merely passive consumers of media, we make choices that satisfy particular psychological needs
Substitute for personal relationships
Resource for developing personal identity
Way of finding out about the world
Existence of dominance of one social group over another
Form of power based on leadership by a group in many fields of activity at once so that its ascendancy commands widespread consent, appears natural and inevitable
Ruling class can non-violently gain consent to govern and impose their values on society.
Hegemonic: no longer appear contestable, taken for granted, common sense.
BUT change can occur.
Initially proposed by Antonio Gramsci, "common sense" when hegemonic
Ideological State Apparatus
ISA: proposed by Louis Althusser
made of institutions such as the family, schools, religion, gov't, and media
Support capitalist system, perform upkeep and spreading of the ideology.
Work to integrate and reintegrate ppl into dominant system of ideas
Globalization: Continuation of past imperialist projects
Imperialism: policy of extending a nation-state's influence over other parts of the world either through force or other means
Two major views of Imperialism: Progressive and Regressive
Regressive is pure conquest
Progressive is about raising underdeveloped parts of the world to a more developed state.
Proponents of the Political Economy use Cultural Imperialism to describe cultural flows in the era globalization: fear that local cultures will be destroyed in favour of one global culture.
Difference between news providers
TV, Radio, Internet can provide continuous coverage, roll over and be less in-depth
Newspaper: denser factual accounts and be more carefully thought out with a once a day frequency
Editorial positions can influence political stances. FOX vs MSNBC Sun Vs Journal
Public Service Broadcasting (PSBS)
About broadcasting to serve public interest
Inform, educate, rather than entertain.
Ex, BBC, CBC, ABC
Criticisms: is it truly independent?
Serves interest of the state
state approved messages (propaganda)
CCTV, Pervyi Kanal
Aird Commission: RC of Radio Broadcasting
Advised the gov't on the future of broadcasting in Canada.
Radio in CAN underdeveloped, ppl tuning into American programming
Wide spread fear of commercialization
5 Broad Purposes: Missions of PSBs
1. Inform and Increase peoples understanding of the world
2. Reflect and Strengthen Cultural Identity
3. Encourage an Interest in Arts, Sciences, and History
4. Support a Tolerant Society
5. Allow for the Production of programming that might not be Commercially Viable
Bourdieu's Ideas on Taste
Book: distinction: social critique of taste
Peoples taste will be heavily impacted by their social class
Middle class- greater affinity for middle class cultural fare
US Model: Free Market with Limitations
First amendment to the US constitution that gov't can make no law abridging freedom of the press.
Regulators were always less able to make restrictions on broadcasting
Some regulation was necessary so "scarce" radio freq weren't being abused
Long-Term Cultivation Theory
George Gerbner: TV gradual changes the way that ppl view the world.
Criticized for confusing correlation with causation and ignoring race, gender, and social class
Position of Decoding
Dominant/Hegemonic: Matches the dominant position of the encoder
Negotiated Position: acceptance of overall view of encoded text, but disagreement with certain elements.
Oppositional position: preferred meaning is identified and rejected by audience members
Katz and Lazarsfeld: Two-Step Flow
Ppl are not that attentive to media messages and therefore can't be influenced
Certain ppl did pay close attention to messages and could be influenced, and they can influence others in their peer group: Opinion Leaders: used in Marketing
Bricolage: in order for cultural products to be successful - must have an excess meaning that people can tap into
Views audiences as being the ones that make meaning, no the culture industries
Uses Michel de Certeau's ideas, sees culture as war
Culture industries are armies and consumers are guerilla fighters
consumers look for cultural territory not being held by cultural industries and use those spaces: like turning Madonna into a feminist icon
Armies of cultural industries come to take back the territory held by the fighters, they retreat and move to another point. This goes back and forth
Culture Industry has strategies.
Views culturalist Neo-Marxist view as giving too much emphasis to the meaning within texts
Political economists tae a much more unreconstructed view of Marxism and focus on ownership of the means of production as the key to explaining why the capitalist system is as powerful as it is.
Construction of News
News providers in any medium are never unbiased
Newspaper limited space, broadcast limited time, internet limited resources
Has to generate Ad revenue
Choices for whats get included or excluded
Gatekeeping: determine which news stories included in a particular news outlet's product. Gatekeepers are editorial staff, how news will be included, concepts of importance and interest. Affect what we know, care, and talk about
Agenda Setting: Result of their decisions about which issues/events to focus on, media shapes the priorities of the public.
Bias or Ideology
Media systems should be guided by market conditions
Gov't should be involved as little as possible
What's on should be what the audience wants to see
Ex: Global, CTV, NBC, CBS, ITV
Early Successes in CAN
Hockey Night in Canada. Owned by CNR. Most iconic program in Canadian history. CNR became CRBC and then CBC
Massey Commision: RC on National Dev
About Art in Canada
Canada became dependant on American culture gods
Let to formation of Canada council for the arts and National Film Board
Established study models for funding Canadian Broadcasting
Formed the Canadian Radio and Television Commission (CRTC) which was to regulate Broadcasting
Rejected the argument that CBC alone should be responsible for canadian culture
3 Models of Broadcasting
Public Service Broadcasting
Positive: Deemed not offend anyone or provide positive values
Negative: restrictive, important to uphold social cohesion. sexually explicit content or violence.
Allowed to license radio broadcasters
Goal: "licenses should serve public convenience, interest, necessity"
Guaranteed competition by never allowing local monopolies
American Public Broadcasting
TW tracks: National Public Radio (NPR) and Public Broadcasting System (PBS)
individual stations receive funding from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting
^They are primarily funded by donations
Local affliate stations run programming
Member stations produce content or simply license content from NPR or PBS
one of the most important concepts in cultural studies
Try to explain why the message sent is not always the message recieved
Encoding happens at the source of the message, encoded with the meanings the creator wants it to have. Usually Hegemonic messages
Decoding happens at the receiver: 3 types, dominant, negotiated, oppositional
Henry Jenkins: fans in the way they choose to make content their own become textual poachers. They often illegitimately, take texts that exist and try to extent them or make the stories their own.
Refigure meaning, to reflect different interpretations or values.
The Frankfurt School
Ultimate goal of human beings as the ability to think, act freely, and to be creative
Capitalism objectives ppl, turns them into standardized pieces within system
Capitalism has transformed culture into another commodity rendering it unable to challenge the system
Culture Industry simply spreads the ideologies of the capitalist system
Move beyond materialism of classical or unreconstructed Marxism
Start to view culture and being, not so much independent of economics, but a major factor in maintaining the system.
Unreconstructed theories of Marxism view culture as essentially inflexible
Neo-Marxism: culture as changing to support the changing needs of the capitalist system
Noam Chomsky Propaganda Model: 5 Filters
1. Ownership and Profit
5. Anti-Communism (more like Anti-Americanism)
Galtung and Ruge's Universal Criteria
4. Cultural Proximity
Galtung and Ruge's Criteria for Developed Nations
1. Elite Nations
2. Elite People
Infotainment and Depoliticaization
Infotainment: News and current affairs presented in entertaining fashion
Seriousness may be lost.
what you want facts to be, opposed to what they are. Feel like its the right answer as opposed to what reality will support
First Director John Reith vision of educational morality and national cohesion
Used to raise taste and moral awareness
Held as Monopoly until British Gov't licensed a 2nd national channel ITV
Fowler Commission: RC on Broadcasting
Demanding a 2nd option other than CBC
John Diefenbaker's gov't passed the Broadcast act
Forming the Board of Broadcast Governors
First act was to start applications for a second station in major markets
CTV created. Financing these
Why has CAN done so well? Sports, sketch comedy, Drama
Look at CBC Mandate
English/French, Available, Multiculture, Reflect Canada
Criticism: taxpayer money
Free Market Model
Markets should be allowed to decide what is best for society based on what people want
Gained popularity during Regan presidency
Position of Harper Gov't
Incompatible with capitalism for government to be involved in broadcasting
Laws of Supply and Demand must apply
Market is more easily able to quality cultural content than a gov't agency
Competition leads to innovation
Bettering society should only be a goal if it is what is profitable
Deregulate media during Reagan presidency
Mark Fowler the commission led the charge against deregulation
Including the repeal of the Fairness Doctrine