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SELF FROM PSYCHO­LOGICAL PERSPE­CTIVE

CARL ROGER’S SELF CONCEPT Also a humanistic psycho­logist, Carl Rogers created client­-ce­ntered therap­y.-Carl Rogers­(19­02-­1987)
SIGMUND FREUD THEORY OF PERSON­ALITY
Theory of Carl Rogers Rogers’ concept of the fully functi­oning person­refers to one who has achieved openness to feelings and experi­ences and has learned to trust inner urges and intuit­ions.
ID - the instin­ctual part of the mind that contains sexual and aggressive drives and hidden memories. It is selfish and wishful in nature. Illogical and fantasy oriented.
IDEAL SELF - which represents who the client wants to be If your ideal selfwould have you be a physician giving oral polio vaccines to children in distant lands, you may feel discontent with your plans to go into real estate or fashion design.
SUPE­REGO - operates as a moral consci­ence. Applies the values of society which are learned from one's parents and others.
REAL SELF - which represents who the client really is, one’s self-image
EGO - the realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego. Modified by the direct influence of the external world. The decisi­on-­making component of person­ality.

HIND­UISM

•The goal of the person is to have a knowledge of the true reality. –Brahman

•The most important doctrine is the LAW OF KARMA
•All actions are subject to Karma
•Indiv­idual actions will lead to either good or bad outcomes in one’s life.
•PEOPLE GET EXACLY WHAT THEY DESERV­ED!

•Hindus believed in REIN­CAR­NAT­ION from lifetime to lifetime until it is freed from the cycle of rebirth and reaches a state of NIRVANA or non-birth.

To achieve self-l­ibe­ration and nirvana you need to perform your duties without expecting any reward for it.~Ve­dan­ta,­Hin­duism
 

THEORY OF PERSON­ALITY

ID
Self-g­rat­ifying branch
•Driven by person­ality that is driven by the pleasure principle
•Satis­faction of sexual and aggressive impulses

EGO
Decisi­on-­making branch
Reality principle Conscious part of the mind

SUPE­REGO
Discri­min­ating branch
Concerned with moralistic issues deciding what is right and wrong.

DONALD W. WINNICOTTS TRUE SELF AND FALSE SELF
TRUE SELF
❑real self, authentic self, original self, vulnerable self
❑Core of who you are
❑spont­aneous and natural expression
❑One is born in

FALSE SELF
❑fake self, ideal self, perfect self
❑behav­iours are altered, feelings are repressed
❑false self is activated when a person has to comply with mores, norms, fads and fashions.
❑Seeks to anticipate the expect­ation of others and improve relati­ons­hips.
❑When a child's demand is denied
❑Adole­scence starts to wear social mask

FAKE PEOPLE
❖Most people do not easily present the different sides of themselves for others to see.
❖They may reveal depending on the situation
❖Example: People avoid cracking jokes in big gatherings as they would like to show that they are refined and educated.

BUDD­HISM

•the self is an illusion, born out of ignorance, or trying to hold/c­ontrol things, or human-­cen­tered needs. Therefore the self is a source of suffer­ing.

•It is our quest to forget about the self, forget the cravings of self, break the attach­ments you have with the world, so you may attain Nirvana.

FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
1.) Life involves suffering
2.) Suffering is caused by attachment and desire to material posses­sions.
3.) Suffering can be eliminated by ending attach­ments and desires.
4.) The desire can easily be abandoned by following the “Eightfold Noble Path.”

EIGH­TFOLD PATH
Right View - know the truth Right mindfu­lness - control your thoughts right concen­tra­tion - practice meditation right effort - resist evil right liveli­hood - respect life right action - work for the good of others right speech - say nothing that hurts others right intent­ion - free your mind of evil

QUOT­ATIONS OF BUDDHISM
“With our thoughts, we make the world”
•“You will not be punished for being anger, you will be punished by your anger.”
•“A painful truth is always better than a hidden lie.”
•“Happy people build their inner world. Unhappy people blame their outer world.”
 

THE SELF IN EASTERN THOUGHTS

EASTERN THOUGHTS
1.) CONF­UCI­ANISM - promotes having a “subdued self”:the personal needs are repressed for the good of many.•can be seen as a code of ethical conduct, of how one should act according to their relati­onship with other people.
CORE: GOLDEN RULE
•(PRIN­CIPLE OF RECIPR­OCITY)
•Do not do to others, what you don’t want others do unto you.
•The basis of proper conduct is knowing how to act in relation to others.

•* “Life is really simple, but we insist on making it compli­cated.”
•* “The more man meditates upon good thoughts, the better will be his world at large.”
•* “When anger rises, think of the conseq­uen­ces.”
•* We have two lives and the second begins when we realize we only have one.”

Your future is determined by your deeds today.
"­Study the past if you would like to divine the future." ~Confucius

TAOISM

Dao­-“the way,” become one with the cosmos, with nature, with all things
Ying and Yang: balance is good, “proper harmony”
•Daoism has changed throughout the centuries, increasing in mysticism and supers­tition, increased knowledge of metallurgy and astronomy
Lao TZu: founder

•The self is not just an extension of the family­/co­mmu­nity, but it is also part of the universe.
•The ideal self is SELFLE­SSNESS, but NOT forgetting the self but rather living a well-b­alanced life with society and nature, being open and accepting change, forgetting prejudices and egocentric ideas, and thinking about equality.

THREE JEWELS OF TAO' refer to the three virtues of Taoism
1. Compas­sion, kindness, love
2. modera­tion, simpli­city, frugality
3. humility, modesty

CONTRA FORCES
a) Yang-yin or positive & negativea) Yang positive, strong and integr­ative. It signifies light, active and male.
b) Yin –negative, passive, weak and disint­egr­ative. It signifies shadow, passive and female.

QUOT­ATIONS OF TAOISM
•“Clay is shaped into a bowl, but it is the empty space that makes it useful.”
•* Men are unhappy because they pretend to be what they are not
•* “The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.”

"If you really want everyt­hin­g,then give up everyt­hin­g.“~Lao Tzu
       

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