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Formation of Dental Biofilm Cheat Sheet by

Biof­ilm:

> 3D-str­uctured commun­ities attached to a solid surface
> Embedded in an exopol­ysa­cch­aride matrix
> Biofilm formation is not random - follows specific pattern of succession
> Availa­bility of bacterial species
> Coaggr­egation pairings
> Cell-cell intera­ctions

Types of Bacterial Intera­cti­ons:

Neutra­lism:
No effect on each other
Compet­ition:
2 popula­tions compete for the same nutrients
Commen­salism:
1 benefits from the other with benefactor remaining unaffected
Mutualism:
Both popula­tions benefits
Symbiosis:
Obligatory intera­ctions
Protoc­oop­era­tions:
Facult­ative intera­ctions
Syntrophy:
Cross-­feeding
Synergism:
Enhanced production of a certain products
Ammens­alism:
1 population has an indirect negative impact on another
Predation:
1 organism consumed by another
Parasi­tism:
1 organism invaded intrac­ell­ularly by another

Inte­rac­tio­ns:­Coa­ggr­egating Pairs of Organi­sms:

 

Biofilm Formation and Content:

Biofilm Formation and Roles of Intera­cti­ons:

Increase in Mass of Biofilm:

Comm­uni­cation in Biofilm:

> Genetic expression is different in biofilm bacteria when compared to planktonic (free floating )bacteria
> Biofilm cells can coordinate behavior via interc­ellular "­com­mun­ica­tio­n" using bioche­mical signalling molecules
 

Quorum sensing:

- Involves regulation of expression of specific genes through accumu­lation of signaling compound that mediate interc­ellular commun­ication
- Dependent on cell density and mediated through signalling compounds
- Quorum sensing gives biofilms their distinct properties
Involved in the regulation of:
> Genetic competence
> Mating
> Bacter­iocin production
> Sporul­ation
> Stress response
> Virulence expression
> Biofilm formation
> Biolum­ine­scence

Bott­le-­Brush Format­ion:

Hetero­typic:
- Strept­ococci with Fusoba­cte­rium, Bacter­oides, Actino­myces, Campyl­obacter

Homotypic:
- Eubact­erium yurii, Tannerella
Bottle­-Brush in subgin­gival biofilm: Eubact­erium Yurii

Micrograph Max Listgarten

Meta­bolic Relati­ons­hips:

Metabolic Relati­onships among oral bacteria within dental biofilm commun­ities,

Why Study Biofil­ms:

Know advers­aries in order to defeat them.
Develo­pment of treatment strategies
Interfere with cell-cell commun­ica­tions (intra­generic and interg­eneric)
 

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