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UNIT 1: Chemistry of Life AP Bio Cheat Sheet by

This contains the content for Unit 1 for the 2021 AP Bio Exam. It includes the following: The structure and chemical properties of water, the makeup and properties of macromolecules, the structure of DNA and RNA.

Water

Polar (H2O)
Solvent
Cohesive Proper­ties: Surface Tension & Adhesion
Thermal Proper­ties: High Specific Heat

Water Vocab

Surface Tension: Measure of how hard it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension b/c of the H bonding of surface molecules.
Adhesion: Substances stick to each other. Water sticks to plant cells walls from H bonding.
High Specific Heat: Before temp increase, water must absorb a lot of heat.
Hydrop­hilic: Water-­loving
Hydrop­hobic: Water-­fearing

Water pH

H+ = OH- (neutral ph)
H+ > OH- (acidic)
H+ < OH- (basic)

pH Scale

0-6 = Acidic
7 = Neutral
8-14 = Basic

Functional Groups

Hydroxyl
OH
Polar
Methyl
CH3
Nonpolar
Carbonyl
C=O
Polar
Carboxyl
COOH
Acidic
Amino
NH2
Basic
Sulfhydryl
SH
Polar
Phosphate
PO4
Acidic
 

Elements of Life

Carbon.
Oxygen.
Hydrogen.
Nitrogen.
Phosph­orus.
Sulfur.
Sodium.
Calcium.
Iron.

Macrom­ole­cules

Macrom­ole­cules
Monomers
Carbs
Monosa­cch­arides
Proteins
Amino acids
Lipids
Fatty acids
Nucleic Acids
Nucleo­tides

Nucleotide Parts

Phosphate Group
5-C Sugar
Nitrog­enous Base

Nucleotide Structure

DNA vs. RNA

DNA
RNA
A - T
A - U
G - C
G - C
Double­-st­randed
Single­-st­randed
Deoxyr­ibose sugar
Ribose sugar

Pyrimi­dines

Cytosine
Uracil
Thymine
*Think: CUT PIE

Purines

Adenine
Guanine
*Think: GREEN APPLES are PURE!
 

DNA & RNA Structure

Fatty Acids

Pyrimi­dines vs. Purines

 

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