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Communications Cheat Sheet by

Chapter 7

what habit reduce effect­iveness of listenings
Pseudo­lis­ten­ing­,stage hogging, selective listening, filling in gaps, insulated listening, defensive listening, ambushing
For what reasons do we listen to people?
to unders­tand, to evaluate, to build and maintain relati­ons­hips, to help others
what are the componets of the listening process?
Hearing, attending, unders­tan­ding, rememb­ering, and respon­ding.

chapter 7 cont

OPEN QUESTIONS allow a variety of extended responses CLOSED QUESTIONS only allow a limited range of answers.
COUNTE­RFEIT QUESTIONS are really disguised attempts to send a message, not receive one. SINCERE QUESTIONS are aimed at unders­tanding others

Chapter 8

what are the four componets of emotion?
physio­logical changes, nonverbal reactions, cognitive interp­ret­ations, verbal expression
What factors influence the expression of emotion in contem­porary society?
person­ality, culture, gender, social conven­tions and roles, fear of self disclo­sure, emotional contagion
Gender and emotion!
whether on the internet or in face to face conver­sations men tend to be less emotio­nally expressive
Culture and emotion!
Cultural background influences the way we interpret others emotions as well as the way we express our own.
Guidlines for expressing emotion
recognize your feelings, choose the best language, share multiple feelin­gs,­rec­ognize the difference between feeling and acting, accept respon­sib­ility for your feelings, choose the best time and place to express your feelings
Diffrence between facili­tative and debili­tative emotions
facili­tative which contribute to effective functi­oning, and debili­tative emotions which hinder or prevent effective perfor­mance

Conflic 12

Passive aggres­sion: occurs when a commun­icator expresses dissat­ifs­action in a disguised manner
Direct Aggres­sion: lashes out to attack the source of disple­asure

Chapter 9

Why do people pick others as potential relational partners?
appear­ance, simila­rity, comple­men­tarity, rewards, compet­ency, proximity, disclosure
Through what stages do relati­onships develop and deteri­orate? Knapps theory!
They develop in the intens­ifying stage and deteri­orate in the termin­ating stage
What dialec­tical tensions arise in relati­onships
integr­ati­on-­sep­ara­tion, stabil­ity­-ch­ange, expres­sio­n-p­rivacy
What is metaco­mmu­nic­ation?
Metaco­mmu­nic­ation is all the nonverbal cues (tone of voice, body language, gestures, facial expres­sion, etc.) that carry meaning that either enhance or disallow what we say in words. There's a whole conver­sation going on beneath the surface.
What strategies are used to gain compliance in relati­onships
direct requests, indirect appeals, recipr­ocity, relational appeals, face value mainta­enance, reward and punish­ment,

Chapter 10

What are the four dimensions of intimacy?
physical, intell­uctual, emotional, and shared activities

Chapter 12

Avoidance: occurs when people nonass­ert­ively ignore or stay away from conflict.
Accomo­dation: occurs when we allow others to have their own way rather than asserting our own point of wiew.
Compet­ition: involves high concern for self and low concern for others
Compro­mise: gives both people at least some of what they want, although both sacrifice part of their goals
Collab­ora­tion: involves a high degree of concern for both self and others

Chapter 12 cont

Contrast the charac­ter­istics of functional and dysfun­ctional conflict
Funtional achieve the best possible outcome, even streng­thening the relati­onship. dysfun­ctional conflict outcomes fall short of what is possible and have a damaging effect on the relati­onship
What are conflict rituals?
unacko­wledged but very real repeating patterns of interl­ocking behavior

chapter 11

• What is commun­ication climate?
Comm climate refers to the emotional tone of a relati­onship. It is a very integral key to positive relati­onships
Differ­entiate among various types of confir­ming, disagr­eeing, and discon­firming messages.
Comfirming commun­ication describes messages which convey valuing of the relati­onship of other person. Discom­firming messages signal a lack of regard for the other person in the relati­onship
How do climates spiral?
a recipr­ocating commun­ication pattern in which each person’s message reinforces the other’s. In positive spirals, one partner’s confirming message leads to a similar response from the other person. Negative spirals are just as powerful, though they leave the partners feeling worse about themselves and reinforce the principle that “what goes around comes around.”
What types of messages are likely to create positive climates as opposed to defensive ones?
A climate doesn’t involve specific activities as much as the way people feel about each other as they carry out those activi­ties. Surely you’ve been in classes that are friendly, comfor­table places to learn and others that are cold and tense, even hostile. The difference is climate. You’ll see the same sorts of differ­ences in other contex­ts—­family, friend­ships, and workpl­aces. If you’ve experi­enced both kinds of climates, you know what a difference climate makes. Research has shown that employees have a higher level of commitment at jobs in which they experience a positive commun­ication climate. Studies also show that perfor­mance and job satisf­action increase when the commun­ication climate is positive. Whether it’s the workplace, the classroom, or the home, people look for and stay in commun­ication climates that affirm and support them.

conflict 12

win-lose: to conflic that involves high concern for self and low concern for others
lose-lose: gives both people at least some of what they want, although both sacrifice part of their goals
win-win: the goal is to find a solution that satisfies the needs of everyone involved.


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