Show Menu

A quick reference for using OpenSSL tool / library under Linux base system.


Checking version
openssl version -a
How fast it runs on the system using four CPU cores and testing RSA algorithm
openssl speed -multi 4 rsa
Get basic help
openssl help


Encoding a file using Base64
openssl base64 -in file.d­ata
Encoding some text using Base64
echo -n "some text" | openssl base64
Base64 decode a file with output to another file
openssl base64 -d -in encode­ -out decode­d.d­ata


List digest algorithms available
openssl list -diges­t-a­lgo­rit­hms
Hash a file using SHA256
openssl dgst -sha256 file.d­ata
Hash text using SHA3-512
echo -n "some text" | openssl dgst -sha3-­512
Create HMAC - SHA384 of a file using a specific key in bytes
openssl dgst -SHA384 -mac HMAC -macopt hexkey:369bd7d655
Create HMAC - SHA512 of some text
echo -n "some text" | openssl dgst -mac HMAC -macopt hexkey­:36­9bd­7d655 -sha512


List all supported symmetric encryption ciphers
openssl enc -list
Encrypt a file using an ASCII encoded password provided and AES-128-ECB algorithm
openssl enc -aes-128-ecb -in cleartext.file -out ciphertext.file -pass pass:thisisthepassword
Encrypt a file using a specific encryption key (K) provided as hex digits
openssl enc -aes-128-ecb -in cleartext.file -out ciphertext.file -K 1881807b2d1b3d22f14e9ec52563d981 -nosalt
Encrypt a file using ARIA 256 in CBC block cipher mode using a specified encryption key (K:256 bits) and initialization vector (iv:128 bits)
openssl enc -aria-256-cbc -in cleartext.file -out ciphertext.file -K f92d2e986b7a2a01683b4c40d0cbcf6feaa669ef2bb5ec3a25ce85d9548291c1 -iv 470bc29762496046882b61ecee68e07c -nosalt
Encrypt a file using Camellia 192 algorithm in COUNTER block cipher mode with key and iv provided
openssl enc -camellia-192-ctr -in cleartext.file -out ciphertext.file -K 6c7a1b3487d28d3bf444186d7c529b48d67dd6206c7a1b34 -iv 470bc29762496046882b61ecee68e07c


List elliptic curves available
openssl ecparam -list_­cur­ves
Create 4096 bits RSA public­-pr­ivate key pair
openssl genrsa -out pub_pr­iv.key 4096
Display detailed private key information
openssl rsa -text -in pub_priv.key -noout
Encrypt public-private key pair using AES-256 algorithm
openssl rsa -in pub_priv.key -out encrypted.key -aes256
Remove keys file encryption and save them to another file
openssl rsa -in encrypted.key -out cleartext.key
Copy the public key of the public-private key pair file to another file
openssl rsa -in pub_priv.key -RSAPublicKey_out -out pubkey.key
Encrypt a file using RSA public key
openssl rsautl -encrypt -inkey pubkey.key -pubin -in cleartext.file -out ciphertext.file
Decrypt a file using RSA private key
openssl rsautl -decrypt -inkey pub_priv.key -in ciphertext.file -out decrypted.file
Create private key using the P-224 elliptic curve
openssl ecparam -name secp224k1 -genkey -out ecpriv.key
Encrypt private key using 3DES algorithm
openssl ec -in ecP384priv.key -des3 -out ecP384priv_enc.key


Generate DSA parameters for the private key. 2048 bits length
openssl dsaparam -out dsaparam.pem 2048
Generate DSA public-private key for signing documents and protect it using AES128 algorithm
openssl gendsa -out dsaprivatekey.pem -aes-128-cbc dsaparam.pem
Copy the public key of the DSA public-private key file to another file
openssl dsa -in dsaprivatekey.pem -pubout -out dsapublickey.pem
To print out the contents of a DSA key pair file
openssl dsa -in dsaprivatekey.pem -text -noout
Signing the sha-256 hash of a file using RSA private key
openssl dgst -sha256 -sign rsakey.key -out document.pdf
Signing the sha3-512 hash of a file using DSA private key
openssl pkeyutl -sign -pkeyopt digest:sha3-512 -in document.docx -inkey dsaprivatekey.pem -out
Verify DSA signature
openssl pkeyutl -verify -sigfile -inkey dsakey.pem -in document.docx
Create a private key using P-384 Elliptic Curve
openssl ecparam -name secp384r1 -genkey -out ecP384priv.key
Encrypt private key using 3DES algorithm
openssl ec -in ecP384priv.key -des3 -out ecP384priv_enc.key
Sign a PDF file using Elliptic Curves with the generated key
openssl pkeyutl -sign -inkey ecP384priv_enc.key -pkeyopt digest:sha3-512 -in document.pdf -out
Verify the file's signature. If it's ok you must receive "Signature Verified Successfully"
openssl pkeyutl -verify -in document.pdf -sigfile -inkey ecP384priv_enc.key


Generating a CSR file and a 4096 bits RSA key pair
openssl req -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout private.key -out request.csr
Display Certificate Signing Request ( CSR ) content
openssl req -text -noout -in request.csr
Display the public key contained in the CSR file
openssl req -pubkey -noout -in request.csr
Creating a Certificate Signing Request ( CSR ) using an existing private key. This can be useful when you need to renew the public digital certificate without changing the private key.
openssl req -new -key private.key -out request.csr
Create EC P384 curve parameters file to generate a CSR using Elliptic Curves in the next step.
openssl genpkey -genparam -algorithm EC -out EC_params.pem -pkeyopt ec_paramgen_curve:secp384r1 -pkeyopt ec_param_enc:named_curve
Create a CSR file using Elliptic Curve P384 parameters file created in the previous step. Instead of using RSA keys.
openssl req -newkey ec:EC_params.pem -keyout EC_P384_priv.key -out EC_request.csr
Create a self-signed certificate, a new 2048 bits RSA key pair with one year of validity
openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout priv.key -x509 -days 365 -out cert.crt
Create and sign a new certificate using the CSR file and the private key for signing ( you must have a openssl.cnf file prepared )
openssl ca -in request.csr -out certificate.crt -config ./CA/config/openssl.cnf
Display PEM format certif­icate information
openssl x509 -text -noout -in cert.crt
Extract the certif­icate's public key
openssl x509 -pubkey -noout -in cert.crt
Extract the public key's modulus in the certificate
openssl x509 -modulus -noout -in cert.crt
Convert a certificate from PEM to DER format
openssl x509 -inform PEM -outform DER -in cert.crt -out cert.der
Checking whether the certificate pubic key matches a private key and request file. One step per file. Must match in the output hashes.
openssl x509 -modulus -in certificate.crt -noout | openssl dgst -sha256
openssl rsa -modulus -in private.key -noout | openssl dgst -sha256
openssl req -modulus -in request.csr -noout | openssl dgst -sha256


List all cipher suites supported
openssl ciphers -V 'ALL'
List all cipher suites supported with AES
openssl ciphers -V 'AES'
List all cipher suites supporting CAMELLIA & SHA256 algorithms.
openssl ciphers -V 'CAMELLIA+SHA256'
TLS connection to a server using port 443 (HTTPS)
openssl s_client -connect
TLS connection to a server using v1.2
openssl s_client -tls1_2 -connect
TLS connection & disable v1.0
openssl s_client -no_tls1
TLS connection using a specific cipher suite
openssl s_client -cipher DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
TLS connection displaying all certificates provided by server
openssl s_client -showcerts
Setting up a listening port to receive TLS connections using a certificate, the private key & supporting only TLS 1.2
openssl s_server -port 443 -cert cert.crt -key priv.key -tls1_2


Convert a certif­icate from PEM (base64) to DER (binary) format
openssl x509 -in certif­ica­te.pem -outform DER -out certif­ica­te.d­er
Insert certificate & private key into PKCS #12 format file. These files can be imported in windows certificate manager or to a Java Key Store (jks) file
openssl pkcs12 -export -out cert_key.p12 -inkey private.key -in certificate.crt
To show the contents of a PKCS #12 file
openssl pkcs12 -in cert_k­ey.p­12
Convert the .p12 file into a Java Key Store. This commnad uses java keytool instead of openssl.
keytool -importkeystore -destkeystore javakeystore.jks -srckeystore cert_key.p12 -srcstoretype pkcs12
Convert PEM certificate to PKCS #7 format
openssl crl2pkcs7 -nocrl -certfile certificate.crt -out cert.p7b
Convert a PKCS #7 file from PEM to DER
openssl pkcs7 -in cert.p7b -outform DER -out p7.der


[ ca ]
default_ca = CA_default

[ CA_default ]
dir = ./pers­onalCA
database = $dir/i­nde­x.txt
new_ce­rts_dir = $dir/newcerts

certif­icate = $dir/c­ace­rt.pem
serial = $dir/s­erial
rand_s­erial = yes
privat­e_key = $dir/p­riv­ate­/ca­key.pem
RANDFILE = $dir/private/.rand

defaul­t_days = 365
defaul­t_c­rl_­days= 30
default_md = SHA256

policy = policy_any
email_­in_dn = no

name_opt = ca_default
cert_opt = ca_default
copy_e­xte­nsions = none

[ policy_any ]
countr­yName = supplied
stateO­rPr­ovi­nceName = optional
organi­zat­ionName = optional
organi­zat­ion­alU­nitName = optional
commonName = supplied
emailA­ddress = optional


- All commands were tested using OpenSSL version 1.1.1g.
- The default format for almost all operations in openssl is PEM, however you can always specify a DER format using arguments or export to other formats with approp­riate comman­ds.


No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          OpenSSL Cheat Sheet
          JAVA keytool Cheat Sheet