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Endocrine Disorders Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

BMEN 5201 - Endocrine Disorders

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


releasing and inhibiting factors
Pituitary Gland - anterior lobe
GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, Prolactin
Pituitary Gland - posterior lobe
ADH (vasop­res­sin), oxytocin
Thyroid Gland
T3, t4, calcitonin
Adrenal Gland - medulla
epinep­hrine, norepi­nep­hrine
Adrenal Gland - cortex
glucoc­ort­icoids, minera­loc­ort­icoids, sex hormones
testes = testos­terone // ovaries =estrogen, proges­terone
insulin, glucagon, somato­statin, PP (including gastrin)
Parath­yroid Glands
parath­yroid hormone

Hypoth­alamic Hormones // Pituitary Hormones

increase ACTH
increase FSH and LH
decrease prolactin
increase GH
decrease GH
increase TSH

Pituitary Hormones

promotes tissue growth, increase bone, muscle and fat
promotes production and secretion of T3 & T4 in thyroid
promotes secretion of glucoc­ort­icoids in adrenal cortex
the gonado­tropic hormones - promotes gamete production and sex hormones secretion in gonads
stimulates milk production in mammary glands
controls thirst and amount of urine produced by kidneys
stimulates uterine contra­ctions in women and acts on mammary glands to release milk
pituitary gland functions with a feedback loop

Thyroid Disorders

thyroid enlarg­ement; causes = pubert­y/p­reg­nancy, iodine deficiency (endemic goiter), hashimotos thyroi­ditis, goitrogens (food that suppress production of thyroid hormones)
Thyrot­oxi­cosis, increased T3 & T4, decreased TSH
Myxedema, decreased t3 & T4, increased TSH (primary)
Hypert­hyr­oidism results in...
genera­lized increase in metabolic rate, heat intole­rance, sweating, irrita­bility, weight loss, increased appetite, exopth­almia, lid lag, tremor, hyperp­igm­ent­ation, friabl­e/fine hair, tachyc­ardia, thyroid storm
hypoth­yro­idism results in...
fatigue, depres­sion, cold intole­rance, dry skin, decreased intell­ectual function slow HR, consti­pation, enlarged tongue (macro­glo­ssia), malocc­lusion, gingiv­itis, rampant decay, candid­iasis
Graves Disease
Hypert­hyr­oidism, autoimmune disease; dx = TSI, elevated T3/T4 but low TSH, diffuse radioa­ctive iodine uptake (thyroid scan)
Graves disease clinical features - triad
thyrot­oxi­cosis, infilt­rative opthal­mop­athy, localized dermopathy
thyroid storm
abrupt onset of hypert­hyr­oidism; when exposed to stress or have graves disease; can lead to uncont­rolled heart arrhyt­hmias, pulmonary edema, CHF --> coma --> death
childhood oral manife­station of thyroid storm
premature loss of primary teeth and early eruption of permanent
primary hypert­hyr­oidism
diffuse toxic goiter or tumor; serum levels show INCREASED T3/T4, BUT DECREASED TSH
secondary hypert­hyr­oidism
TSH-pr­oducing pit. tumor; serum levels show INCREASED T3/T4 AND INCREASED TSH
congenital hypoth­yro­idism; symptoms = coarse/dry skin, puffy, pale lips, impaired develo­pment of skeletal and CNS (results in dwarfism and mental retard­ation); oral manife­sta­tions = macrog­lossia, mouth breathing, underd­eve­loped mandible, overde­veloped maxilla, late eruption, enamel hypoplasia
Juvenile Hypoth­yro­idism
primary hypoth­yro­idism in children; mental sluggi­shness, dragging, cold intole­rance, obesity, consti­pation
Hashim­oto's Thyroi­ditis
primary hypoth­yro­idism; charac­terized by lymphoid infilt­rated and Hurthle cells
primary vs. secondary hypoth­yro­idism
primary has INCREASED TSH // secondary has DECREASED TSH
function of T3 & T4 = physical and brain growth and matura­tion, help oxygen consum­ption, elevated basal metabolic rate, increases body heat, upregu­lates metabo­lism, protein synthesis

function of calcitonin = helps Ca2+ absorption by bone and inhibit osteoclast resorption

low levels of circul­ation T3 & T4 --> no negative feedback to ant. pit. --> increase TSH --> trophic effect on thyroid gland --> GOITER

Pituitary Disorders

deficiency in one or multiple hormones; can result from inschemic injury or non-fu­nct­ional pituitary neoplasms
excessive secretion of hormones (adenoma, hyperp­lasia, carcinoma)
Space Occupying Lesion (SOL)
Sheehan Syndrome
postpartum necros­is/­pos­tpartum hypopi­tui­tarism; hypert­rop­hy/­plasia of lactot­rophs; results in enlarg­ement of ant. pit. lobe; symptoms: agalac­tor­rhea, amenor­rhea, hot flashes, decreased libido; has features of both hypopi­tui­tarism (fatigue, intole­rance to cold, consti­pation, weight gain, hair loss, low BP) and adrenal insuff­iciency (similar to addisons)
rare, benign tumor in children; develops from remnants of Rathke's pouch; a tumor mimicking the enamel organ of embryonic tooth
Bitemporal Hemianopia
bilateral loss of outer/­per­ipheral visual fields, tunnel vision
Pituitary Adenomas: --------
most common type of functional adenoma; hyperp­ola­cti­nemia; clincally- amenor­rhea, galact­orrhea, loss of libido, infert­ility
GH adenoma - BEFORE closure of epihyses; juvenile, genera­lized increased body size with dispro­por­tioned limbs, CV problems; dx= elevated GH levels and CT positive pit tumor
GH adenoma - AFTER closure of epiphyes; adult, coarse skin, enlarg­ement of visceral organs, increase in facial bones (progn­athism, flaring of teeth), CV problems, diabetes mellitus, hypert­ension, arthritis; dx= elevated GH levels and failure to suppress GH by oral load of glucose
ACTH-p­rod­ucing adenoma
thyrot­rophs; results in hypert­hyr­oidism
pan-hy­pop­itu­ita­rism: ------­---­-------
diminished GH
failure of growth --> Dwarfism
diminished TSH
diminished LH/FSH
failure of sexual maturity and fuunction (ameno­rrea, infert­ility)
diminished ACTH
Addison's Disease
diminished ADH
diabetes insipidus (excessive thirst and urination)

Adrenal Gland Disorders

excess cortisol production
decreased cortisol produc­tion??
Cushing Syndrome
hypera­dre­nalism; ACTH-p­rod­ucing pituitary adenoma (60% of cases); clinical = weight gain, truncal obesity, hypert­ension, thinning skin, flushing of face, purple striae, easy bruising, hirsutism (excess hair), acne, osteop­orosis, buffalo hump, moon faces, muscle weakness
Addison's Disease
chronic adreno­cor­tical insuff­ici­ency; reduct­ion­/lack of cortisol and aldost­erone; excess ACTH?; symptoms = tiredness, lack of energy, weight loss, GI distur­bances, hypogl­ycemia, hyperp­igm­ent­ation (bronz­ing), suscep­tible to infection
primary vs secondary Addisons disease
primary = reduct­ion­/lack of cortisol and aldost­erone // secondary = due to deficiency of ACTH (hypot­hal­ami­c/p­itu­itary dysfun­ction)
Waterh­ous­e-F­rid­eri­chsen syndrome
caused by overwh­elming sepsis due to bacterial infection, usually Neisseria mening­itidis; symptoms = rapid hypote­nsion leading to shock, DIC, wide spread purpura on skin, acute and rapid adreno­cor­tical insuff­iciency
Adrenal Crisis
hypote­nsion, weakness, collapse, N/V, headache, fever; tx = hydroc­ort­isone
tumor of adrenal medulla; catech­ola­min­es-­pro­ducing tumor arising from medullary paraga­ngl­ionic cells (chrom­ophine cells); clinical = epinep­hrine increase HR and force of contra­ction, relaxation of bronch­iolar smooth muscle and glycog­eno­lysis

Endocrine Pancreas Disorders

gastri­n-p­rod­ucing tumor in pyloric antrum and duodenum
glucag­on-­pro­ducing tumor (ultra cells)
insuli­n-p­rod­ucing tumor (beta cells)
somato­sta­tin­-pr­oducing tumor (delta cells)
Zollin­ger­-El­lison syndrome
1 or more gastrinoma in duodenum; results in excess HCL produc­tion, leading to frequent peptic ulcers and hyperp­lasia of gastric mucosa
islets of langerhans (pancreas)
glucagon, insulin, somato­statin, PP cells, gherlin (epsilon cells)