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Genetic Disorders Cheat Sheet by

Genetic disorders, autosomal disorders, x-linked disorders/traits, etc.

Genetic Disorders

Caused by
Alleles inherited from parents
Genetic mutations
Chromo­somal damage
Enviro­nmental factors
X-linked traits

Types of Genetic Disorders

Single­-gene Disorders
One gene is affected by a mutation that is passed through parents; can be x-linked, autosomal, dominant or recessive
Complex Disorders
More than one gene is affected by a mutation, not always passed through parents
Chromo­somal Disorders
Chromo­somes (or parts of) are mutated or missing, not always passes through parents

Chromo­somal Disorders

Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)
Turner Syndrome (monosomy X)
Edward Syndrome (trisomy 18)
Patau Syndrome (trisomy 13)

Complex Disorders


Autosomal Disorders

A chromosome (not a sex chromo­some)
Autosomal Disorders
Diseases caused by genes on autosomes
Autosomal Dominant
Disorders that are passed from one parent (homoz­ygous dominant or hetero­zygous)
Autosomal Recessive
Disorders that are passed from both parents (homoz­ygous recessive)

Autosomal Dominant Disorders

Huntin­gton's Disease
Neurol­ogical disorder; progre­ssive degene­ration of brain cells, muscle spasms, person­ality disorder
Marfan Syndrome
Inherited disorder; affects the body's connective tissue causing dispro­por­tio­nately long limbs, weakened aorta, and poor eyesight
Inherited in autosomal dominant pattern; hereditary breast cancer,

Autosomal Recessive Disorders

Cystic Fibrosis
Mucus in bronchial tubes and pancreatic ducts; shortened lifespan
Sickle­-cell Anemia
Mutated shape of red blood cells causing frequent blockages in blood vessels
Degene­ration of central nervous system occurring in children

X-Linked Traits

Y Chromosome
Color blindness
X Chromosome
Barr body


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