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Unit 4 Cell Communication Cheat Sheet by

ap bio unit 3 cell communication


set of conditions under which living things can succes­sfully survive
Negative feedba­ck/­fee­dback inhibition
turning itself off using the end product of the pathway.
positive feedback
further stimulates the pathway, for example more and more X is made

The Cell Cycle

tempor­arily nondiv­iding until they get a signal to reenter the normal cell cycle.
Interphase (G1, S, G2)
not yet started to divide, regular activities
S phase: replicates its genetic material, single chromosome in the nucleus is duplic­ated. sister chromatids held by centromere.
G1 and G2: growth, performs metabolic reactions and produces organe­lles, proteins, and enzymes.
These three phases are highly regulated by checkp­oints and special proteins called cyclins and cyclin­-de­pendent kinases (CDKs). To induce cell cycle progre­ssion, an inactive CDK binds a regulatory cyclin, the complex is activated, the cell cycle continues. To inhibit cell cycle progre­ssion, CDKs and cyclins are kept separate.
losing control of the cell cycle, such as mutation in a protein, may cause cancer. Mutated genes that induce cancer are called oncogenes.
Tumor suppressor genes produce proteins that prevent the conversion of normal cells into cancer cells, also can trigger apoptosis.
cell divides into two geneti­cally identical daughter cells + mainta­ining the proper number of chromo­somes from generation to generation
1. Prophase: chromatin condenses
2. Metaphase: chromo­somes align in the middle.
3. Anaphase: chromatids are pulled apart.
4. Telophase: the cell completes splitting in two. cytoki­nesis:split along a cleavage furrow­(an­imal)/ cell plate (plant)
* Mitosis is involved in growth, repair, and asexual reprod­uction, so not happen in sex cell.

Cell Commun­ication in plants

plants do not have a nervous system but can produce several proteins found in animal nervous systems, such as certain neurot­ran­smitter receptors.
response to enviro­nmental stimuli, link enviro­nmental cues to biological processes, commun­icate with nearby plants.


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