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Cheatography

A&P Chapter 2 NAHHH Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Anatomy 2.1 abc (A&P Atomic Structure)

2.1a MATTER­,EL­EME­NTS­,PE­RIODIC TABLE
Body has=
matter
Matter is present in
liquid­,gas, and solid
Atom compos­ition=
neutron
proton
electrons
Amu=
Neutro­n+P­roton
Atomic Number=
# of protons
Atomic Mass=
(Atomic Weight)=
Proton & Neutron
2.1b ISOTOPES
Isotopes=
same Proton & Electrons
different Neutrons
Average Atomic Mass=
average isotopes
Physical half-life=
50% of radioi­sotope
to become stable
Biological Half-Life=
Half of medicine to be destroyed
2.1c STABILITY & OCTATE RULE
Valence Shell=
Exterior Electron Layer
Octet Rule=
8 Valence ELectrons=
stability

Anatomy 2.2 ab (Ions)

2.1a IONS
Ions=
positive or negative charge
Cations=
Loss of Electron
Anion=
gain of electron
2.2b IONIC BONDS
Ionic Bonds=
Positi­ve+­Neg­ative bond=
Salt structure
Ionic Compound Ex:=
NaCl

Anatomy 2.3 abcd (Covalent Bonds)

2.3 a COVALENT MOLECULES
Covalent Bond=
charge equili­brium
Molecular Formule=
# & type of element
Structural Formula =
Arrang­ement
Isomers=
Same Molecular formula
different structure
2.3 b COVALENT BONDS
Can have bonds up to:
single
double
triple
Polarity depends on
Electr­one­gat­ivity
Polar=
pull
nonpolar=
no pull
2.3 c POLARITY & AMPIPATHIC
non polar contains=
non polar bonds
polar contain
polar bonsd
Ampipathic Molecule=
can have both poles
2.3d ATTRACTION
Interm­ole­cular attrac­tion=
weak attraction
Ex:=
Hydrogen Bond
van der Waals forces=
non polar attraction
Occurs moment­arily=
when charge differs
 

Anatomy 2.4 abc Water Property

2.4 a STRUCTURE
H2O
water molecule ability=
form 4 hydrogen bond with
hydrogen bonds
2.4b PROPERTIES
Phases= Transports
Lubricates
Cushions
Excretes Waste
Water has=
Cohesion
Surface Tension
Adhesion
High=
Specific Heat
Heat of Vapori­zation
2.4 c UNIVERSAL SOLVENT
Water=
Solvent
Stuff that gets dissolved =
Solute
Hydrop­hyllic=
dissolves in water
Dissolve in water
but do not remain intact=
dissociate
Electr­olytes
Dissolve
Conduct Current
Non Polar=
does not dissolve =
hydrop­hobic
Ex: Fats
Partially Dissolve=
Ampipathic Molecules

2.6 ab Water Mixtures

2.6 a WATER MIXTURES
Suspen­sion=
Large Solutes
Scatter Light
Settle if not in motion
Colloid=
Small Solute
Scatter light
do not settlte
Solution=
Smallest Solute
Do not scatter light
do not settle
Emulsion=
Polar+­Non­Polar=
form when mixed
2.6 b SOLUTION CONCEN­TRATION
Mass/V­olume =
mg Solute=dL Solution
Mass/V­olume Percent=
grams/100 mL
Molarity=
Moles solute/L solution
Molality=
Moles solute/kg Solvent
Osmoles dependent=
dissolves in solution
Osmola­rity=
# particles in 1 litre solution
Osmlality=
# of paritcles in 1 kilogram
of water
mole=
6.022X­10^23
Molecular Mass=
Add up AMU

Anatomy 2.5 abc Acid/Base & pH Buffer

2.5 a WATER=­NEUTRAL SOLVENT
H2O+
H2O->
H3O^+ +
OH^-
H3O^+=
Hydronuim
OH^-=
Hydroxide Ion
2.5 b ACIDS & BASES
ACid=
Proton Donor
Base=
Proton ACceptor
2.5 c pH BUFFERS
Neutral=
7
Buffer =
Prevent pH Change
 

2.7 abcde (Macro­mol­ecules)

27a GENERAL CHARAC­TER­ISTICS
Organic Molecules=
contain carbon
Inorganic molecules=
every other molecule
Hydroc­arbons=
C-H
Polymers=
Monomers=
Identical chemical Structure
Dehydr­ation=
forms
Hydration=
breakdown
2.7 LIPIDS
Types: Trigly­cerides
Phosph­olipids
Steroids
Eicosa­noids
Tryglc­erides=
energy storage
14-20 carbon long
Fatty Acid:
Satura­tion= lacks double bond
Unsatu­rat­ed=­pos­sesses double bond
polyun­sat­urated= double bond+
Phosph­olipid membrane=
Hypdro­phyllic side
hypdro­phobic side
Steroid Ring
4 rings consisting of hydroc­arbons
Eicosa­noids =
20 carbon fatty acids=
commun­icate with nervous system=
signaling molecules
2.7 c CARBS!!!
Glucos­e->
Glycog­eni­sis­->
Glycogen
(Reversed with Glycog­eno­lysis)
6-Carbon Sugars (Hexose)=
Galactose Fructose
5-Carbon Sugars (Pentose)=
Ribose
Deoxyr­ibose
Disacc­har­ides=
Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose
2.7 NUCLEIC ACIDS
Single Ring= Pyrimi­dines=
Cytosine
Uracil
Thymine
Double Ring= Purines=
Adenine
Guanine
DNA & RNA
composed of Nucleo­tides
linked through Covalent Bonds
called phospo­hdi­ester bonds
DNA possesses=
deoxyr­ibose sugar
phosphate
1 of the nitrog­enous bases
Nitrog­enous bases= THymine
adenine
guanine
cytosine
RNA posses­sess=
ribose
phosphate
1 of 4 nitrog­enous bases
RNA Nitrog­enous Bases= Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Uracil
DNA/RNA Differ­ences=
2/1 Strands
Deoxyr­ibo­se/­Ribose
Thymin­e/U­racil
2.7 e PROTEINS
Protein Functions= Catalysts
defense
Transport
Structural Support
Cause Movement
Perform Regulation
Provide Storage
Amino Acids ->
Monomers ->
Proteins
Amino Acids
Covalents Bonded=
Peptide Bonds
3-20 Amino Acids=
Oliope­ptide
21-199 Amino Acids=
Polype­ptide
200+ Amino Acids=
Protein
Protein+ Carb=
Glycop­rotein
 

2.8 Protein Structure

2.8 a AMINO ACIDS
Amino Acids groups= Nonpolar
Polar
Charged
special Function
Nonpolar amino acids=
R group=
hydrogen or Hydroc­arbons
groups with nonpolar amino acids
polar amino acids
contain R groups
interacts with polar and
water molecules
charged amino acids=
Negative have: Glutamate & Aspartate
Positive Charge Have: Histidine, Lysine, arginine
Special Functi­ons:=
Proline, Cysteine, and Methionine
2.8 SEQUENCE & PROTEIN CONFOR­MATION
4 Protein shapes= Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary
Primary=
Linear Amino ACids
Secondary=
Alpha Helix
Beta Sheet
Tertiary Structure=
3-dime­nsional shape
repeating secondary structure
quarte­rnary structure=
2+ proteins
Denature=
PH change
Temper­ature Change
               

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