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WHAP Unit 4 Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Key Concept 4.1

Portuguese created school for naviga­tio­n->­inc­reased trade w/West Africa
European cartog­rap­hy-­>better naviga­tio­n->­easier transo­ceanic trading
European royal chartered monopoly companies (British East India+­Dutch East India Company which were joint stock compan­ies­)were used by rulers to contro­l+for merchants to compete in global trade
Christ­ianity became more diverse during Reform­ati­on(­Wyc­liffe and the Lollards, Jan Hus and the Hussites, Luther(95 Theses) and Luther­anism, Calvin and Calvin­ism­(Pr­ote­stant work ethic), Henry VIII and Anglic­ani­sm(so he can remarry) b/c Church corrupt so certain groups felt that it needed to reform
Trade-­>made European country's economy better­->f­unding for the arts (Shake­speare, Renais­sance arts)
The Tolerance Acts of 1680 granted freedom of worship to Non-An­gli­cans.
African religion in the Americ­as-­rel­igious syncretism
African Diaspo­ra(­dis­pla­cement of Africa­ns)-new languages, religions, music
The conquest into the Baltic sea gave Russia a warm water port (St Peterson) was used for trade
Ottoman Empire­:Mehmed ruled Istanbul which prospered due to location of the Bosporus Strait
Zheng He: purpose to display wealth of Dynasty and receive tribute; win prestige for the Chinese government -Opened new markets for Chinese goods + brought unders­tanding of the world beyond China -Confucian scholars worried that intera­ctions and trade w/ others threatened China's social order
 

Key Concept 4.2

Bureau­cracies increased and the power of the middle class grew at the expense of the lords and the church's
Indentured servitude- Encomi­enda, mit’a system, and slavery
Social change-new social pyrami­d->­pen­ins­ulares, creoles, castas, mestizos, mulattoes, zambos
Atlantic slave trade-­>de­mog­raphic change w/greater number of women
At the top of the social class were the boyars who were the landowning nobles
Conflict for gov’t positions between ulama and warrior aristo­cracy
Sultans became less capabl­e-a­dvisers (called viziers) needed
Akbar created bureau­cratic gov’t with gov’t officials called zamindars
Silk textile industry grew thru trade in Japan
Japan not feudal system ->d­aimyo power decrea­sed­->s­amurai w/o masters called ronin

Know This Too!

Korea-very isolated; close links w/China
 

Key Concept 4.3

European rulers used divine right to legitimize rule (Jean Bodin)
Thirty Years War ->e­conomic catast­rop­he-­>ch­allenge to state consol­idation
The French government became more absolute which allowed for an ever greater centra­liz­ation of government and the develo­pment of the system of intendants (tax farmers).
European shift from feudalism to nation­alism
Certain regions of East and West Africa were targets of european imperi­alism during the late 15th century
West and Central African states mostly on the coast streng­thened from trade-­>de­cline of other states
Tsars(­Russian rulers) establ­ished the Russian orthodox church as a way to unite the people and they claimed divine right
Russia greatly grew in size
Serfs were overtaxed which resulted in rebell­ion­->made it harder to state consol­idation
Ottomans used devshirme- Christian boys became Janiss­aries
Ottomans and Safavid conflict: Sunni v. Shia and overland trade routes
Mughal India:­Akbar tolerant of all religions, very good ruler
Li Zicheng conquered Beijing, the Manchu saw this opport­unity to seize power, founded Qin Dyn.
Manchus wanted to make their culture dominant in China (men obligated to dress in the Manchu style)
Tokugawa Shogunate set on centra­lizing Japan
       

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