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IB Geography Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

IB Geography Section B: Oceans and Coastal Margins

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Oceans and Atmosp­heric Intera­cti­ons

Key Terms
Coastal margins: all areas from the deep oceans to inland areas that are affected by coastal processes and that affect the coastline
ENSO: (El Niño Southern Oscill­ation) a reversal of normal atmosp­heric circul­ation in the southern Pacific Ocean, occurs every 2-10 years
La Niña: an intens­ifi­cation of normal atmosp­heric processes in the Southern Pacific Ocean
Eustatic changes: worldwide sea-level changes caused by the growth and decay of ice caps
Isostatic changes: localised sea-level changes caused by depression of the Earth's crust
Advancing coastl­ines: coastlines that are growin­g/g­etting larger due to deposition or a fall in sea-level
Retreating coastl­ines: coastlines that are getting smalle­r/d­isa­ppe­aring either due to erosion or a rise in sea-level
Global commons: resources that are outside the reach of any one nation, may be exploited by all so needs to be managed carefully
Case Studies
El Niño:
Australian Droughts (2015) - mangroves died due to lower sea-le­vels, increased frequency and severity of bushfires, poor growing season (real farm GDP declined between 0.7% to 25.4%) -> impacted global cost of wheat, less weather disrup­tions for mines and non farm industries
La Niña:
Australian Flooding (2022) - national $10 increase for iceberg lettuce due to flooded Brisbane (QLD) farms, Lismore (NSW) had $350 billion worth of damages to council infras­tru­cture
Typhoon Haiyan (2019) - about 70-80% of the buildings in the path of Haiyan were destroyed, many left without power or teleco­mmu­nic­ations, a total of at least 10,000 fatali­ties, a storm surge of 6m. World Food Programme: mobilised $2 million in aid. HICs helped the Philli­pines recover through financial aid
exist on tropical coastl­ines, important to nurse fish and birds, natural filter of pollut­ants, reduces cyclone effects. Toondah Harbour - mangrove protection local pressure (Redlands 2030)/­int­ern­ational agreements (Ramsar Conven­tion)
Coral Reefs:
exist in tropics, nurses and protects fish, protect coast from erosion and storms, there are four types of reefs. Great Barrier Reef - example of a barrier reef, the WWF and Australian Government are trying to reverse the decline of marine species. Tourism and fishing of the reef reels in $6 billion annually
Coastal Management Stakeh­olders:
Toondah Harbour (2018) - (QLD) Walker Corpor­ation: wanting to build houses on mangroves, Local Residents: want to keep their ocean view, Enviro­nme­nta­lists: protect and preserve mangrove areas, Council and Govern­ment: shouldn't permit Walker corp. due to intern­ational agreement
Coastal Management Decision Making:
Collaroy (2016) - (NSW) coastal residents are under threat due to erosion, the 2016 storm wiped out 50m of beach in front of beach houses, residents: urge for action, govern­ment: doesn't want to fund private land protec­tion, others: land is now inhabi­table
Contested Area:
South China Sea (2022) - China is abusing the EEZ laws by claiming coral reef islands as theirs to increase their fishing waters, less wealthy countries (Phill­ipines) have minimal power but attempted to get China to stop, China argue historical claims