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IB Geography (Core 1) Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

IB Geography Core Topic 1: Changing Population

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Key Terms

Key Terms
North-­South Divide:
the increasing inequality in levels of develo­pment between the North/HICs and South/LICs
Develo­pment Gap:
the difference in wealth between the developed world and the developing world
the Organi­sation of Petroleum Exporting Countries, represents the interests of oil exporters
undermined by other oil-pr­oducing countries, such as the UK, that do not agree with OPEC controlled oil prices
The G7/8:
a group of the world's wealthiest and most powerful contries
now the G7 as Russia was expelled from the group, power can also be undermined from China
The G10 or Paris Club:
a group repres­enting the wealthiest members of the Intern­ational Monetary Fund (IMF)

Case Studies

Case Studies
Uneven population distri­bution:
China - highly concen­trated on the east, especially in coastal zones and lower rivers valleys. Physical - preferable for rain-fed agricu­lture, trade and commerce -> leading to internal migration and core (east) periphery (west) ideas
South Africa - core regions (south­-east) good for farming, trade and high in mineral resources, periphery regions (north­-west) lack rainfall and steep, mountain ranges
Ageing Popula­tions:
Japan - decreases in birth rates and death rates since 1945 has resulted in 26% of Japan's population being over 65, creating huge social issues in the work force and health care
Youthful Popula­tions:
Chad and Niger - 26.23% of Chad's population is 0-14, Niger's mean working age is 15.1. Both due to high death and birth rates
Russia - has had low fertility rates for decades. In the past, the government has imposed childl­essness tax, bonuses for third and fourth children and longer maternity leaves, all somewhat increased Russia's TFR
China - the 'one child policy' created dispro­por­tionate ratios between women and men, 100 to 118, due to tradition
Megacity Growth:
Mumbai - India's largest city, originated from multiple fishing villages until the 1970s where the economy was based on textiles and trade through the port. Since then, it has divers­ified and includes aerospace, engine­ering, computers and electronic equipment indust­ries. Although Mumbai faces poverty, under/­une­mpl­oyment, limited access to health care, education, sanitation and electr­icity due to rapid city growth, many living in slums
Benefits of a Demogr­aphic Dividend:
Ethiopia - since 2000, Ethiopia has improved the health and develo­pment of its people. Mortality rates had declined, literacy rates have increased, women's reprod­uctive health has increased, TFR has decreased. 2030 Ethiopia will have the conditions to facilitate accele­rated economic growth
Forced Migration:
Syria - due to conflict and harsh Islamic ruling, over 10 million people have fled Syria to neighb­ouring countries. Half of Lebanon's population is refugees - has about 1.4 million refugees, half of whom are children. The large number of refugees in Lebanon has strained health and education services, electr­icity, water and sanitation systems - as Lebanon has only receiving an eighth of target funding.
Nigeria - a terrorist group Boko Haram attacked northern Nigeria in 2014, causing over 3 million people to become IDPs. 60% of the region's farmers have left, one third of health care services have closed, in the region there is a lack of fresh water and sanitation