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Biology Exam 2 Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

2 Types of Respir­ation

Cellular Respir­ation
Making ATP

Cellular Respir­tation

glucose is broken down to carbon dioxide and water and the cell captures some of the released energy to make ATP
Equation: Glucose + Water -> Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP

Mono-h­ybrid Cross Ratio


Redox Reaction

gaining electrons
the loss of electrons

Aerobic Respir­ation vs. Anaerobic Respir­ation

Aerobic respir­ation
a process that uses oxygen, takes place in the cytoplasm and the mitoch­ondria, most effeciant
Anaerobic espiration
a process that doesn't use oxygen, takes place in the cytoplasm and the mitoch­ondria, least effeciant
two forms of cellular respir­ation.

Aerobic Respir­ation vs. Anaerobic Respir­ation

Aerobic Respir­ation
a process that uses oxygen
Anaerobic Respir­ation
a process that doesn't use oxygen
two forms of cellular respir­ation.

Over All Genetic Flow


X Linked Genes-

are recessive


A codon is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleo­tides that corres­ponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis. DNA and RNA molecules are written in a language of four nucleo­tides; meanwhile, the language of proteins includes 20 amino acids.
AUG-start codon


normal body cells that undergo genetic mutations, lose the ability to control the tempo of their own division, and run amok, causing disease

Transfer RNA molecule

amino acids

Mendel studied what most?



Asexual Reprod­uction
produces offspring that are identical to the original cell, or organism and involves inheri­tance of all genes from one parent
Sexual Reprod­uction
produces offspring that are similar to the parents but show variations in traits and involves inheri­tance of unique sets of genes from 2 parents.

Citric Acid Cycle

Where are the enzymes for the citric acid cycle located?
Matrix and Inner Membrane

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

only has one round of each and the daughter cells are identical to the parent as well as to each other
has two rounds of genetic separation and cellular division and homologous chromo­somes separate leading to daughter cells that are not geneti­cally identical.

Purines vs. Pyrimi­dines

The two-carbon nitrogen ring bases (adenine and guanine)
The one-carbon nitrogen ring bases (thymine and cytosine)

Transc­ription vs. Replic­ation

copies the DNA into RNA
makes another copy of DNA


Autosomal chromo­somes pairs
Sex Chromosome
23rd Pair, only mutations in the sex cells can be passed on to offspring
Homologus Chromo­somes
are matched in length, centromere position, and gene location.

Base Pairing Rules

A with T (DNA)
the purine adenine (A) always pairs with the pyrimidine thymine (T)
C with G (DNA)
the pyrimidine cytosine (C) always pairs with the purine guanine (G)
A with U (RNA)
thymine is replaced by uracil (U)


remain at the original site
spread to other locations called metastasis