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Module 12 psych notes Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Learn about Prenatal and Newborn Devlopment

Learn about prenatal and newborn develo­pment

a) from conception to birth is about nine months
b) a single fertilized egg cell (carries all genetic info needed) will turn into a baby
c) during this time many positi­ve/­neg­ative things can affect the child

12.1- trace physical develo­pment from conception through birth and identify influences on prenatal develo­pment

1) Fertil­iza­tion, the Zygote, and Twinning
a) egg (aka ovum) and sperm meet in process of fertil­ization
b) resulting cell has 46 chromo­somes and is called a zygote
c) zygote divides (1,2,4­,8,...) & each new cell also has 46 chromo­somes b/c DNA molecules duplicate themselves before each division (called mitosis)
d) normally produces baby, sometimes messes up and produces 2+
e) 2 main types of twins: mon­ozy­got­ic- identical; both come from one fertilized egg. diz­ygo­tic- fraternal; two fertilized eggs (more likely in older women or those taking fertility drugs.
f) very useful in Nature vs. Nurture debate research
g) mass of cells might not completely split apart: which causes conjoined twins

2) The Three Stages of Develo­pment
2.1)The Germinal Period
a) ger­minal period- first two weeks after fertil­iza­tion, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant the lining
b) during the germinal period, cells begin to differ­entiate (devel­oping into specia­lized cells to become various cells (ex. skin, heart, ect...)
c) btw- stem cells are super important
2.2) The Embryonic Period
a) emb­ryonic period- the period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertil­iza­tion, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop.
2.3) The Fetal Period
a) fetal period- the time from about 8 weeks after conception until the birth of the child (now referred to as fetus).

12.2- Explain the role of sensitive and critical periods in develo­pment

1) Critical Periods
a) cri­tical period­s- times during which certain enviro­nmental influences can have an impact on the develo­pment of an infant

2) Prenatal Hazards: Teratogens
a) ter­ato­gen- any factor that can cause a birth defect.
b) The most common teratogen is alcohol.
c) Teratogens can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (fas), which is a series of mental and physical health defects.

Learn about Prenatal and Newborn Devlopment

Learn about prenatal and newborn develo­pment

a) from conception to birth is about nine months
b) a single fertilized egg cell (carries all genetic info needed) will turn into a baby
c) during this time many positi­ve/­neg­ative things can affect the child

12.1- Trace physical develo­pment from conception through birth and identify influences on prenatal develo­pment

1) Fertil­iza­tion, the Zygote, and Twinning
a) egg (aka ovum) and sperm meet in process of fertil­ization
b) resulting cell has 46 chromo­somes and is called a zygote
c) zygote divides (1,2,4­,8,...) & each new cell also has 46 chromo­somes b/c DNA molecules duplicate themselves before each division (called mitosis)
d) normally produces baby, sometimes messes up and produces 2+
e) 2 main types of twins: mon­ozy­got­ic- identical; both come from one fertilized egg. diz­ygo­tic- fraternal; two fertilized eggs (more likely in older women or those taking fertility drugs.
f) very useful in Nature vs. Nurture debate research
g) mass of cells might not completely split apart: which causes conjoined twins

2) The Three Stages of Develo­pment
2.1)The Germinal Period
a) ger­minal period- first two weeks after fertil­iza­tion, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant the lining
b) during the germinal period, cells begin to differ­entiate (devel­oping into specia­lized cells to become various cells (ex. skin, heart, ect...)
c) btw- stem cells are super important
2.2) The Embryonic Period
a) emb­ryonic period- the period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertil­iza­tion, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop.
2.3) The Fetal Period
a) fetal period- the time from about 8 weeks after conception until the birth of the child (now referred to as fetus).

12.2- Explain the role of sensitive and critical periods in develo­pment

1) Critical Periods
a) cri­tical period­s- times during which certain enviro­nmental influences can have an impact on the develo­pment of an infant

2) Prenatal Hazards: Teratogens
a) ter­ato­gen- any factor that can cause a birth defect.
b) The most common teratogen is alcohol.
c) Teratogens can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (fas), which is a series of mental and physical health defects.