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Pharmacology Antihypertension drugs Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Antihy­per­tension drugs classi­fic­ation

direct vasodi­lators
angiot­ensin II inhibitors


carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
osmotic agents
loop/high ceiling diuretics
thiazide diuretics
potassium sparing

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors +amide

acetaz­ola­mide, dichlo­rph­ena­mide, methaz­ola­mide, dorzol­amide
primary site of action; poximal tubule
secondary site of action; collecting duct
admini­ster; orally
elimin­ated; via kidney
Adverse effects; Drowsi­ness, Skin toxicity, bone marrow toxicity, Metabolic acidosis, urinary alkali­niz­ation.
Therap­eutic uses; Rarely used as diuretics, Glaucoma, epilepsy, Altitude sickness, to correct metabolic alkalosis

osmotic diuretics

Mannitol, Urea, Glycerin, Isosorbide
Site of action -Nephron segments permeable to water
Pharma­col­ogi­cally inert
oral admini­str­ation; Glycerin & Isosorbide
IV admini­str­ation; Mannitol & urea
renal elimin­ation; Isosor­bide, urea, Mannitol
metabo­lism; glycerin, Mannitol (- 10%)
Adverse effects; Headache, nausea, vomiting, Dehydr­ation, Pain (urea), Hyperg­lycemia (glycerin)
Therap­eutic uses; acute glaucoma & Cerebral edema (increased ICP)

Loop/high ceiling diuretics

Furose­mide, Torsemide, Ethacrynic acid
inhibit Na+-K+­-2Cl- symport
Some carbonic anhydrase inhibition activity
Site of action; thick ascending limb (ThAL)
admini­ster; orally
Elimin­ation: metabolism and renal unchanged
Adverse effects; Ototox­icity, Hyperu­ric­emi­a+L­ipi­demia, hypo-K­+/M­g+/Ca+
Therap­eutic use; Acute pulmonary edema, Chronic CHF, HTN, edema of nephrotic syn., cure toxemia