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Psych Midterm 2023 Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

behavioral research methods psych cheat sheet

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Goals of behavioral science

Primary goal
Describe the frequency of a particular behavi­or/­att­itude in a single group, or compare freque­ncies between groups
74% of the world smiled yesterday
Predict future occurr­ences using reliable associ­ations between two behaviors or events
Watching violent TV as a child predicts aggression in adulthood
Determine the cause(s) and effect(s) of behavi­or/­att­itudes
Mindfu­lness meditation improves self-r­egu­lation of negative emotions

Variable Types

Nominal variables (aka catego­rical)
Values are categories with no order
Ex. College major: Psych, Sociology, Dance, etc.

Core Ethical Principles

1. Respect for Persons - Partic­ipants must have autonomy, informed consent, and some groups receive special protec­tions due to potential for coercion
2. Benefi­cence - Take precau­tions to protect partic­ipants from harm/e­nsure their wellbeing, weigh risks against benefits, and Minimize risks of harm (confi­den­tia­lity)
3. Justice - The benefits and risks of research must be distri­buted fairly, equitable access, and selection of research partic­ipants is scruti­niz­ed/­jus­tified (If a clear benefit is determ­ined, all must be offered)

Operat­ion­alizing Measures

Ask partic­ipants questions
Observe partic­ipants’ behavior
Assess partic­ipants’ biological activity

Research Questions

Sources of Research Ideas
For Testing an Existing Theory
**From the World
Refining Reserch Questions
Research literature and the world around you
Either provides further support for the theory or eveals boundary conditions of the theory WHOSE behavior it explains, WHEN and UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS it accurately explains behavior
Real-world problems, observ­ations, or everyday claims
From big and general to specific and testable

Identi­fying Variables

Any measurable quantity or quality that varies from person to person (or group to group) in sample
Ex. Happiness, wealth, health, perfor­man­ce...(all ex's are Constr­ucts)

Defining Variables

Conceptual Definition
Operat­ional Definition
Part of refining research question – clearly defining your question with specific variables
The concrete way you will measure the variable (“Oper­ati­ona­lize” = to operat­ionally define)
Ex. Is Instagram use associated with mental health? to Is following fitflu­encers on Instagram associated with body image?
Ex. Is following fitflu­encers (Following any fitflu­encer accounts (binary: yes/no) or number of fitflu­encer accounts followed) on Instagram associated with body image (“Are you happy with your body?” Validated 13-item Body Apprec­iation Scale)?