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Further Tests Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Further tests + Procedures

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Blood Tests

Full Blood Count (FBC)
- Infection & haemat­olo­gical disorders e.g. anaemia
Erythr­ocyte Sedime­ntation Rate (ESR)
- With FBC + CRP, inflam­mat­ory­/ne­opl­ast­ic/­inf­ectious process
Rheumatoid Factor (RF)
- Vague aching, symmet­rical joint involv­ement +ve ESR + CRP
Anti-C­yclic Citrul­linated Peptide (Anti-CCP)
- More specific than RF for RA, erosive diease
Serum Calcium
- Malign­ancy, Metabolic bone disease, renal diseas­e/h­ypo­cal­caemia
Serum Inorganic Phosphorus
- Metastatic bone disease, metabolic bone disease, renal disease
Parath­yroid Hormone (PTH)
- Metabolic bone diseas­e/m­eta­static bone tumours - PTH + Serum Calcium + Phosphorus
Serum Total Protein & Albumin
- When ESR/CRP is elevated, FBC reveals dyscra­sia­s/m­ali­gnancy - multiple myeloma
Serum Alkaline Phosph­atase
- Primar­y/m­eta­static tumours, osteom­alacia, Paget'­s/h­epa­tob­iliary disease
Serum Prostatic Acid Phosph­atase (PAP)
- Mets of Prostate Cancer
Serum Uric Acid
- Suspicion of Gout
Anti-N­uclear Antibody
- Inflam­matory process - SLE (Fatigue, Arthra­lgia, Malar Rash, photop­hobia, alopecia), autoimmune disorders, infective endoca­rditis & some malign­ancies
- Insidious LBP - AS, Reiter's syndrome + psoriatic Arthritis
Serum urea and creatine
- LBP + suspicion of renal disease (pyelo­nep­hritis, glomeu­lon­eph­ritis and renal calculi)
Serum total protein and albumin
- When ESR/CRP is elevated - malign­anc­y/m­ultiple myeloma (drops albumi­n/g­lobulin rate to >1.0)
Total Bilirubin:
- Pain in mid back/right upper back - Gallbl­adder gallst­ones, tumour, inflam­mation, Liver problems
Serum Creatine Kinase (CK)
- Elevated in the absence of heart disease = soft tissue diseases - polymy­ositis & dermat­omy­ositis
Suspected Inflam­matory arthritis
Monoar­ticular pain:
- As above + Serum urate + X-rays (OA)
Myalgia + polymy­algia
- FBC, ESR/CR­P/R­F/A­NA/­Thyroid screen/CK
Connective tissue disorders:
- RF and ANA


- Hx/signs of a UTI
- Hx/signs of renal disease
- Hx/signs of DM
- Hx of protei­nura, Bacter­iuria, pyuria, microh­aem­aturia

Electr­odi­agnosic Studies (EMG)

- Muscles + neurom­uscular Junction disorders
- How well nerves can transmit electrical signals


- Females should follow the 10 day rule (incase of pregnancy)
- When to x-ray:
>50 yos
Signif­icant trauma
Neuromotor deficits
Unexpl­ained weight loss
Suspicion of AS
Drug or alcohol abuse
Hx of cancer
use of cortic­ost­eriods
Increased temp >37.8C
Failure to improve
Patient seeking compen­sation
Hx of surgery in region
Incons­ist­ent­/eq­uivocal biomec­hanical spinal exam findings
Evaluation of complex postur­al/­bio­mec­hanical disorders
Limited Exam due to pain