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POSC 225 Final Exam Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Cohen POSC 225: U.S. Government Study Guide for Final Exam

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

History of Print Media

For a long time, print journalism was expensive and took months to reach certain people. It was also labor-­int­ensive and very time consuming.
Pamphlets were more common and effective in terms of political media since they were passed from person to person.
Political parties launched newspapers in compet­itive areas, which generally attacked opponents and did no objective reporting. They didn't have a large reader­ship.
During Andrew Jackson's time in office, he appointed editors to positions in the govern­ment, which threatened the freedom of the press.
Newspapers were financ­ially dependent on parties since they didn't have a lot of readers, so in order to become more objective they needed to be financ­ially indepe­ndent.
When newspapers became cheaper to print, they were able to be profitable without depending on parties. In the mid-late 1800s papers focused less on politics and more on human interest, and publishers wanted to appeal to as wide of an audience as possible and thus stayed neutral much of the time.
"­Yellow Journa­lis­m" became a thing, and publishing magnates put their ideologies in their newspaper chains.

Radio, TV, and Network News Anchors

After only 10 years of radio broadc­asting, over 40% of the public owned radios. Most people got their news this way, especially regarding the New Deal and WWII.
After WWII TV took hold and the FCC began regulating broadc­asting and networks.
99% of all households have a tv, and by 2006 2/3 of the US said they subscribed to cable.
Talk radio (and more recently podcasts) have become a political force, partic­ularly on the right.
Anchors didn't just report the news but had the ability to insert themselves into it and influence public opinion.