Quiz 21. The major premise of any categorical syllogism is the premise that contains the predicate of the conclusion  2. The ________ is the term occurring in a syllogism that appears in both the oremesis of a categorical syllogism but not in the conclusion Middle term  3. A term is said to be _________ when reference is made to only a portion of the class of objects Undistributed  4. Two propositions are ________ when they can both be true, but both cannot be false Subcontrary  5. A statement about a relationship of either inclusion or exclusion, partial or total, between two groups of objects or events is called Categorical  6. A(n) _____ proposition declares that the relationship between two classes is one of partial inclusion I form  7. A(n) ____ proposition declares that the relationship between two classes is one of total exclusion E Form  8. A(n) ____ proposition declares that the relationship between two classes is one of partial exclusion O Form  9. The propositions in an argument that support the conclusion are called the _____ Premises  10. Whenever a conclusion is drawn from a single premise, without reference to evidence from any other source, we call this argument Immediate inference  11. A term is said to be a _____ when reference is about the entire class of objects Distributed  12. An unreliable inference or error in reasoning is called a ____ Fallacy 
Homework1. A few lazy students do not prepare for class. Steve prepares for class. We can conclude that Steve is not a lazy student
Answer:
Some lazy students are not class preparers O
All Steve (d) are class preparer (u) A
_____________________________
Steve is not a Lazy student > No Steve (d) are class preparer (u)
Invalid:Illicit Distribution 
A. Fallacy of four terms
B. Undistributed middle term
C. Faulty exclusion
D. Illicit distribution
E. Syllogism
RulesStep 1: Change the claim to either its contrary if universal or subcontrary if particular  Step 2: Leave the subject alone  Step 3. Compliment the predicate 
  Quiz 2  Convert if possible1. All envious people are difficult to work with Can't convert (it is an A form)  2. No exams are pleasant experiences No pleasant experiences are exams 
Quiz 2  Obvert1. No terrorists are patriotic Americans All terrorists are nonpatriotic Americans  2. Any term distributed in the conclusion of a categorical syllogism must be distributed in the premises No terms distributed in the conclusion of a categorical syllogism are terms that must be nondistributed in the premises 
Quiz 2  True, False, UnknownAssume the following proposition is TRUE All patriots are voters.  1. No patriots are nonvoters True  2. All nonvoters are nonpatriots True  3. All voters are patriots Unknown  4. Some patriots are not voters False  5. Only voters are patriots (No nonvoters are patriots) True  6. Only patriots are voters (No nonpatriots are voters) Unknown  7. Some patriots are voters True 
Quiz 2  Restate in standard categorical form1. Nearly every student must be immunized Some students are people who must be immunized  2. Only freshmen can enroll today. No nonfreshmen are students allowed to enroll today 
DefinitionsA  Distributes the subject  E  Distributes both  I  Distributes neither  O  Distributes the predicate  Middle Term  occurs in the premises, distributed once, cannot be in the conclusion  Major Premises  the predicate of the conclusion  Contradiction  opposite truth value  if one's true, the other is false  Contrary  Both can't be true, however both can be false  SubContrary  Both can be true at the same time, however both can't be false at the same time  Subimplication  The truth of the universal proposition guarantees the truth of the particular  Superimplication  The falsity of the particular claim guarantees the falsity of the universal  Syllogism  Deductive argument in which a conclusion is drawn from 2 pieces of evidence (premises) 
Arguments with missing propositions are called Enthymemes
  Quiz 2  Consider the argumentSince all politicians are careful planners and it is also a fact that nearly all bank robbers are also careful planners. It only stands to reason that some bank robbers are politicians  Answer: The conclusion of the argument is a  Some bank robbers are politicians  Determine if the arguments are valid or invalid. Which reason describes the reason the syllogism is invalid. A: Fallacy of four terms B: Undistributed middle term C: Faulty exclusion D: Illicit distribution E: Syllogism satisfies all four terms  1. Every politician provides his services and experiences freely. No criminal gives freely his experience and services. Therefore no politician is a criminal. Answer: VE   2. This building was certified prior to the fire because it was inspected and all certified buildings have been inspected Answer: IB   3. The categorical proposition Only truly dedicated men enter the priesthood. Is translated to Answer: No nontruly dedicated men are men who enter the priesthood 
Notes(A Form): All (___) [distributed] are (___) [undistributed]: inclusive quality; universal quantity  (I Form): Some (___) [undistributed] are (___) [undistributed]: inclusive; partical  (E Form): No (___) [distributed] are (___) [distributed]: exclusive; universal  (O Form): Some (___) [undistributed] are not (___) [distributed]: exclusive; partial  Inclusive: A, I  Exclusive: E, O  Universal: A, E  Partial: I, O  Only is universal and exclusive = E Form  A Few = I form  Few = O form  If there are no non's you can leave it alone  Only use conversion on E and I forms  A and I = Affirmative quality  E and O = Negative quality 
  Quiz 21. In the Oform proposition the subject is undistributed True  2. No valid argument can have a false conclusion if the premises are true True  3. Conversion is a valid operation for all four types of categorical propositions False  4. In a valid categorical syllogism, the middle term must be distributed twice False  5. A valid categorical syllogism must have exactly three terms, each used exactly twice to refer the same class True  6. In a valid categorical syllogism, every term distributed in the premises must be distributed in the conclusion False  7. When two categorical propositions differ in only their degree of generality, the truth of the more general proposition logically implies the less general True  8. A strong inductive argument is an argument in which the premises of the argument establish a relatively high degree of probability that the conclusion is true True  9. If a conversion is valid, no term in the converse can be distributed unless it was distributed in the original proposition True  10. All sound deductive arguments have a true conclusion True  11. Any categorical proposition is logically equivalent to its converse False  12. A syllogism is a deductive argument with two premises and one conclusion True  13. It is a flaw in the argument's structure or form that causes the argument to be invalid True  14. All four forms of standard categorical propositions may be simply converted False  15. All valid arguments must have a true conclusion False  16. No invalid argument can have a true conclusion False  17. If there are two exclusive premises in a syllogism, then the conclusion must be affirmative False*  18. The truth of the premises guarantee the validity of the argument False  19. If the premises are true and the argument is valid then the conclusion must be true True  20. All four standard forms of the categorical proposition have a logical equivalent True  21. A sound deductive argument must be both valid and have true premises True 

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