Cheatography

# Reasoning and Argumentation Cheat Sheet by salthom

### Quiz 2

 1. The major premise of any catego­rical syllogism is the premise that contains the predicate of the conclusion 2. The ________ is the term occurring in a syllogism that appears in both the oremesis of a catego­rical syllogism but not in the conclusion Middle term 3. A term is said to be _________ when reference is made to only a portion of the class of objects Undist­ributed 4. Two propos­itions are ________ when they can both be true, but both cannot be false Sub-co­ntrary 5. A statement about a relati­onship of either inclusion or exclusion, partial or total, between two groups of objects or events is called Catego­rical 6. A(n) _____ propos­ition declares that the relati­onship between two classes is one of partial inclusion I form 7. A(n) ____ propos­ition declares that the relati­onship between two classes is one of total exclusion E Form 8. A(n) ____ propos­ition declares that the relati­onship between two classes is one of partial exclusion O Form 9. The propos­itions in an argument that support the conclusion are called the _____ Premises 10. Whenever a conclusion is drawn from a single premise, without reference to evidence from any other source, we call this argument Immediate inference 11. A term is said to be a _____ when reference is about the entire class of objects Distri­buted 12. An unreliable inference or error in reasoning is called a ____ Fallacy
Multiple Choice

### Homework

 1. A few lazy students do not prepare for class. Steve prepares for class. We can conclude that Steve is not a lazy student Answer: Some lazy students are not class preparers O All Steve (d) are class preparer (u) A ______­___­___­___­___­___­___­_____ Steve is not a Lazy student --> No Steve (d) are class preparer (u) Invali­d:I­llicit Distri­bution
A. Fallacy of four terms
B. Undist­ributed middle term
C. Faulty exclusion
D. Illicit distri­bution
E. Syllogism

### Rules

 Step 1: Change the claim to either its contrary if universal or subcon­trary if particular Step 2: Leave the subject alone Step 3. Compliment the predicate

### Quiz 2 - Convert if possible

 1. All envious people are difficult to work with Can't convert (it is an A form) 2. No exams are pleasant experi­ences No pleasant experi­ences are exams

### Quiz 2 - Obvert

 1. No terrorists are patriotic Americans All terrorists are non-pa­triotic Americans 2. Any term distri­buted in the conclusion of a catego­rical syllogism must be distri­buted in the premises No terms distri­buted in the conclusion of a catego­rical syllogism are terms that must be non-di­str­ibuted in the premises

### Quiz 2 - True, False, Unknown

 Assume the following propos­ition is TRUE All patriots are voters. 1. No patriots are non-voters True 2. All non-voters are non-pa­triots True 3. All voters are patriots Unknown 4. Some patriots are not voters False 5. Only voters are patriots (No non-voters are patriots) True 6. Only patriots are voters (No non-pa­triots are voters) Unknown 7. Some patriots are voters True

### Quiz 2 - Restate in standard catego­rical form

 1. Nearly every student must be immunized Some students are people who must be immunized 2. Only freshmen can enroll today. No non-fr­eshmen are students allowed to enroll today

### Defini­tions

 A Distri­butes the subject E Distri­butes both I Distri­butes neither O Distri­butes the predicate Middle Term occurs in the premises, distri­buted once, cannot be in the conclusion Major Premises the predicate of the conclusion Contra­diction opposite truth value - if one's true, the other is false Contrary Both can't be true, however both can be false Sub-Co­ntrary Both can be true at the same time, however both can't be false at the same time Subimp­lic­ation The truth of the universal propos­ition guarantees the truth of the particular Superi­mpl­ication The falsity of the particular claim guarantees the falsity of the universal Syllogism Deductive argument in which a conclusion is drawn from 2 pieces of evidence (premises)
Arguments with missing propos­itions are called Enthymemes

### Quiz 2 - Consider the argument

 Since all politi­cians are careful planners and it is also a fact that nearly all bank robbers are also careful planners. It only stands to reason that some bank robbers are politi­cians Answer: The conclusion of the argument is a - Some bank robbers are politi­cians Determine if the arguments are valid or invalid. Which reason describes the reason the syllogism is invalid. A: Fallacy of four terms B: Undist­ributed middle term C: Faulty exclusion D: Illicit distri­bution E: Syllogism satisfies all four terms 1. Every politician provides his services and experi­ences freely. No criminal gives freely his experience and services. Therefore no politician is a criminal. Answer: VE 2. This building was certified prior to the fire because it was inspected and all certified buildings have been inspected Answer: IB 3. The catego­rical propos­ition Only truly dedicated men enter the priest­hood. Is translated to Answer: No non-truly dedicated men are men who enter the priesthood

### Notes

 (A Form): All (___) [distr­ibuted] are (___) [undis­tri­buted]: inclusive quality; universal quantity (I Form): Some (___) [undis­tri­buted] are (___) [undis­tri­buted]: inclusive; partical (E Form): No (___) [distr­ibuted] are (___) [distr­ibu­ted]: exclusive; universal (O Form): Some (___) [undis­tri­buted] are not (___) [distr­ibu­ted]: exclusive; partial Inclusive: A, I Exclusive: E, O Universal: A, E Partial: I, O Only is universal and exclusive = E Form A Few = I form Few = O form If there are no non's you can leave it alone Only use conversion on E and I forms A and I = Affirm­ative quality E and O = Negative quality

### Quiz 2

 1. In the O-form propos­ition the subject is undist­ributed True 2. No valid argument can have a false conclusion if the premises are true True 3. Conversion is a valid operation for all four types of catego­rical propos­itions False 4. In a valid catego­rical syllogism, the middle term must be distri­buted twice False 5. A valid catego­rical syllogism must have exactly three terms, each used exactly twice to refer the same class True 6. In a valid catego­rical syllogism, every term distri­buted in the premises must be distri­buted in the conclusion False 7. When two catego­rical propos­itions differ in only their degree of genera­lity, the truth of the more general propos­ition logically implies the less general True 8. A strong inductive argument is an argument in which the premises of the argument establish a relatively high degree of probab­ility that the conclusion is true True 9. If a conversion is valid, no term in the converse can be distri­buted unless it was distri­buted in the original propos­ition True 10. All sound deductive arguments have a true conclusion True 11. Any catego­rical propos­ition is logically equivalent to its converse False 12. A syllogism is a deductive argument with two premises and one conclusion True 13. It is a flaw in the argument's structure or form that causes the argument to be invalid True 14. All four forms of standard catego­rical propos­itions may be simply converted False 15. All valid arguments must have a true conclusion False 16. No invalid argument can have a true conclusion False 17. If there are two exclusive premises in a syllogism, then the conclusion must be affirm­ative False* 18. The truth of the premises guarantee the validity of the argument False 19. If the premises are true and the argument is valid then the conclusion must be true True 20. All four standard forms of the catego­rical propos­ition have a logical equivalent True 21. A sound deductive argument must be both valid and have true premises True