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Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda June 19,1861 (Calamba, Laguna) December 30,1896 ( Bagumbayan, Manila)

Rizal's Parents

Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro
Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda de Rizal y Quintos

Rizal's Siblings

Saturnina Rizal
Paciano Rizal
Narcisa Rizal
Olympia Rizal
Lucia Rizal
Maria Rizal
Jose Rizal
Concepcion Rizal
Josefa Rizal
Trinidad Rizal
Soledad Rizal


Josephine Bracken (m 1896 - 1896)

Cause of Death

Execution by firing squad


University of Santo Tomas
Ateneo de Manila University
Complu­tense University of Madrid

Youthful Intell­ectual Endeavors

He was reciting the alphabet by the age of three and was able to read and write by the age of five.
First Teacher - his mother
Jose graduated high school with the highest honors at the age of 16. He concen­trated his studies in land surveying.
After leaving high school he further pursued his training in land surveying and completed training in 1877. He passed the exam to get his license in this field in May of 1878. However, he was unable to receive the license because he was just 17 and thus underaged at the time. He was not given the license until he came of age in 1881.
When Jose could not get his license, he decided to take classes and become a medical student at the University of Santo Tomas. However, he did not stay in attendance for very long at this school because he said that the Dominican instru­ctors were being discri­min­atory of Filipino students.
After dropping out and receiving his license as a land surveyor, Jose went to Madrid and enrolled in the Central University of Madrid in May of 1884.
At the age of 23, he graduated with a medical degree.
The year after he graduated with his medical degree he obtained a degree from the department of Philosophy and Letters.
Rizal went back to school once again to advance his knowledge in the field of ophtha­lmo­logy. He studied in Paris and Germany and completed another doctorate degree in Heidelberg in 1887.
became an opthal­mol­ogist for personal reasons - treating his mother's blindness

List of Books and Published Works of Jose Rizal

Noli Me Tangere
novel, 1887
El Filibu­ste­rismo
(novel, 1891), sequel to Noli Me Tángere
Alin Mang Lahi (“Whate’er the Race”)
a Kundiman attributed to Dr. Jose Rizal
The Friars and the Filipinos
Toast to Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo
(Speech, 1884), given at Restau­rante Ingles, Madrid
The Diaries of José Rizal
Filipinas dentro de cien años
essay, 1889–90 (The Philip­pines a Century Hence)
La Indolencia de los Filipinos
essay, 1890 (The indolence of Filipinos)
unfinished novel
Sa Mga Kababa­ihang Taga Malolos
essay, 1889, To the Young Women of Malolos
Annota­tions to Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas
(essay, 1889, Events in the Philippine Islands)


A La Juventud Filipina (English transl­ation: To The Philippine Youth)
Mi Ultimo Adiós (English transl­ation: My Last Farewell)
Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo (English transl­ation: Memories of My Town)

Rizal's Journey

In 1887 Rizal published his first novel, Noli me tangere (The Social Cancer), a passionate exposure of the evils of Spanish rule in the Philip­pines.
A sequel, El filibu­ste­rismo (1891; The Reign of Greed), establ­ished his reputation as the leading spokesman of the Philippine reform movement.
He published an annotated edition (1890; reprinted 1958) of Antonio Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, hoping to show that the native people of the Philip­pines had a long history before the coming of the Spaniards.
He became the leader of the Propaganda Movement, contri­buting numerous articles to its newspaper, La Solida­ridad, published in Barcelona.
Rizal’s political program included integr­ation of the Philip­pines as a province of Spain, repres­ent­ation in the Cortes (the Spanish parlia­ment), the replac­ement of Spanish friars by Filipino priests, freedom of assembly and expres­sion, and equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law.
Rizal returned to the Philip­pines in 1892. He founded a nonvio­len­t-r­eform society, the Liga Filipina, in Manila, and was deported to Dapitan in northwest Mindanao. He remained in exile for the next four years.
In 1896 the Katipunan, a Filipino nation­alist secret society, revolted against Spain. Although he had no connec­tions with that organi­zation and he had had no part in the insurr­ection, Rizal was arrested and tried for sedition by the military.
Found guilty, he was publicly executed by a firing squad in Manila.
His martyrdom convinced Filipinos that there was no altern­ative to indepe­ndence from Spain. On the eve of his execution, while confined in Fort Santiago, Rizal wrote “Último adiós” (“Last Farewe­ll”), a master­piece of 19th-c­entury Spanish verse.


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