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Operating System Basics Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Address Transl­ation

VA -> Page Table (entry) -> Physical memory or swap
Temporal Locality - recently referenced pages that might be again
Spatial Locality - referenced addresses will probably be near other recently referenced
Mappings cached in TLB (Trans­lation Lookaside Buffer)

Page Tables

Entry looks like | M1 | R1 | V1 | Prot3 | PFN26 |
Modify Bit - whether or not a page has been written (set on write)
Reference Bit - page has been accessed (set on read/w­rite)
Valid bit - PTE can be used
Protection bits - R/W/X permis­sions
PFN - Page Frame Number - physical page

Other Page Tables

Hashed - Hash function maps virtual page to bucket of LList of (VPN, PTE)
Inverted - Table of PFNs - > PID, PTE

Fetch Policies

Demand Paging - Swap in the pages you need when you need them
Prepaging - Predict next page that will get loaded and load it now

Replac­ement Policies

OPT
Swap out page that will not be used for the longest time
FIFO
Swap out oldest page
 
Suffers Belady's Anomaly - Fault rate may increase with memory size
LRU
Swap out page that has not been accessed for longest time
CLOCK
Approx­imation of LRU - Go through candidates in a circle. If Ref bit set, clear it, move on. If not set, then swap out.
Page Buffering - Maintain a pool of free (uncle­are­d/r­esc­uable) frames. Run replac­ement when pools gets too empty, run it until pull is full enough. On fault grab frame from pool.

Address Space

Deadlock

Definition
Set of processes that compete for resources or commun­icate with each other perman­ently blocked
Conditions
Mutual Exclusion* - only one process uses resource at once
 
Hold and wait* - A process may hold resource while waiting for other resource
 
No preemp­tion* - No resource can be forcefully removed from a process
 
Circular wait** - A closed chain of processes, where one needs 1+ resources held by the next.
*Necessary for deadlock.
** Necessary and suffic­ient.
 

Memory partit­ioning (Fixed vs Dynamic)

- Fixed partit­ioning: Every process gets a fixed amount of memory in one of the following ways:
- Equal size. Every process gets the same amount of memory. Internal fragme­ntation when process too small. Overlay when process too big. No external fragme­nta­tion.
- Unequal size. Every process gets a chunk that has minimum memory required available. Internal fragme­nta­tion. Holes
- Dynamic partit­ioning: Size and number of partitions varies
- Every process gets as much as needed on start. Need to know size before­hand. Holes. Need reloca­table processes.
- PAGING: Split both virtual and physical memory in same chunks called Pages
- Every process gets its own Page Table which maps its virtual addresses into physical pages (offset is the same, only need to translate frames)

CPU Scheduling

FCFS
NP, First Come First Serve
SJF
NP or P, Choose thread with shortest (remai­ning) processing time. Optimal avg wait time
RR
P, Circular Q, good for time sharing systems
Priority Scheduling
NP or P, Highest priority job selected from ready Q
NP - Nor Preemptive Preemptive
Priority Inversion - Low priority blocks resource, high priority doesn't run.

Log FS Mapping and GC

Mappings to inodes are stored in imaps, placed in chunks after new inform­ation. Fixed location on disk called Checkpoint Region contains pointers to latest pieces of imap. Keep 2 CRs at opposite ends of the disk for redund­ancy.
Garbage Collection period­ically goes through segment by segment and frees up files, since new versions of files are written to new places on disk. (LOG FS is circular)

Disk Perfor­mance

Seek
Moving disk arm to cylinder (1 - 15ms, ~5ms avg, improving slowly)
Rotation
Wait for sector to rotate to head (4ms avg, not improving)
Transfer
Moving data from platter to controller (~100MB/s, sector ~5micr­ose­conds, Improving quickly)

FS - Caching Writes

Writes can be buffered. This allows
Multiple writes in one (e.x. flip many bits of a bitmap)
Scheduling to allow for better disk access
Avoid writes entirely (e.x. set bit to 1, set bit to 0)

File Buffer Cache

Locality when readin­g/w­riting files
Cache blocks­/in­ode­s/dir entries that are "­hot­"
Can use static or dynamic partit­ioning.
Static - allocate n% at boot. Wasteful.
Dynamic - VM and FS pages into unified cache. Pages of memory can be dynami­cally allocated between RAM and FS cache
 

Fast File System

Used cylinder (block) groups.
Data blocks in same file allocated in same group
Entries in same directory allocated in same group
Inodes for files are allocated in same group as file data
Large files get broken up into chunks and allocated in different cylinder groups
Groups reduce number of long seeks.
Must have free space in cylinder groups (10% of disk reserved free)

Disk Scheduling Policies

FCFS - First Come First Serve (i.e. no schedu­ling) - Good under small load
SSTF (Shortest Seek Time First) - Minimize arm movement, maximize request rate, favor middle blocks
SCAN (elevator) - Order requests by direction (do all in direction one, then all in reverse)
C-SCAN (Typew­riter) - Like SCAN, but only in one direction.
LOOK/C­-LOOK - Same as SCAN/C­-SCAN but only move as far as last request in each direction.

Journaling

Log TxBegin , log inode bitmap, log block bitmap, log block data. Once done, log txend (trans­action committed)
Write data (check­point step). Make sure TxEnd scheduled last.
Avoid writing data to journal by writing data first, then journal, then actual metadata

Log FS

Like FFS but everything gets logged in order.
Superblock | summary | inode | data | data | inode | data | superblock | summary etc
Summary has pointer to next summary or next super block.

RAID (Redundant Array of Indepe­ndent Disks

RAID1 (Data duplic­ation)
mirror images, redundant full copy. Wastes space
Parity Inform­ation
XOR each bit from2 drives, store checksum on 3rd
RAID 0
Write half of data on one drive and one on the other

Filesystem consis­tency

Superblock
Sanity checks. Use another copy if corrupted
Free blocks
Ensure inodes in use are marked in bitmap. Trust inodes.
Inode state
Must have valid mode. Remove if can't fix
Inode links
Verify links. Traverse tree and count links. Move unlinked inodes to lost+found
Duplicates
Two inodes refer to same block
Bad blocks
bad pointers. Remove from inode
Directory checks
Make sure . and .. are first. Each inode in dir is allocated. No dir linked more than once.

CPU Scheduling Goals

All Systems
Fairness, Avoid starva­tion, Policy enforc­ement, Best use of resources
Batch System
Throughput (jobs/­hour), Turnaround (min time between submit and complete), CPU Util (keep CPU busy)
Intera­ctive System
Response time (min time from submit to start), Propor­tio­nality (simple tasks finish faster)
Real Time System
Meet deadlines, predic­tab­ility

Threads

Kernel - Less state to alloc and init than process => cheaper concur­rency
User - Managed by runtime systems. Small, fast, has PC, registers, stack, small TCB. Creating, switching, sync done by procedures (no kernel). (Disadv.) - Not well integrated with OS, Schedu­ling.
Hybrid - Can have many kernel threads associated with many user threads, or many user threads associated with a few kernel threads.