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Science Exam Grade 9 Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


- Zacharias Janssen invented the first optical compound microscope in 1595
- In 1665 Robert Hooke used a light microscope to look at non living cork cells and therefore coined the term cells
- Anton van Leeuwe­nhoek made micros­copes w/ 10x power and observed the first living organisms which he called animac­ules.

Cell Theory an Shit

- Properties of cells 1) Life is the most basic property of cells 2)Cells are the smallest units of life 3) Cells are highly complex and organized.
- Cell Theory 1) All organisms are made of one or more cells 2) Cell is the basic unit of life 3) Cells can only arise from a preexi­sting cell. (This theory was created in the 1800s by three German scient­ists.


Unicel­lular Organisms - have just one cell such as amoebas but have problems functi­oning when they get too big and they don’t have a nervous system nor muscles.
Multic­ellular- have more than one cell type and each cell type has a different and important role in your body.
Prokar­yotes - do not have a true Nucleus
Eukaryotes- Have true nuclei


Somatic Cell Nucleus Transfer
Gene Cloning
Remove the nucleus of a body cell (somatic cell) and place it into an egg cell which has had its nucleus removed
Isolate the gene of interest and Make copies of the gene using a smaller organism (bacteria or yeast)
Stimulate the modified egg cell with its new nucleus to divide and develop into a new individual
Transfer the gene into another organism

Mitosis vs Meiosis

Interphase I
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase & Cytoki­nesis I
Telpohase & Cytoki­nesis
Repeat all steps again except for Interphase where the DNA is duplicated

Deoxyr­ibo­nucleic acid = DNA

Humans have 23 chromo­somes (46 in total)
Karyotype is a DNA chart with Homologous pairs (1 from mum 1 from dad)
A chromosome is made up of two chromatid
DNA is made of 4 base compounds (ACTG)

Flower Reprod­uction

Female Flower Parts
Male Flower Parts
Filament Pollen

Matter is Anything that Takes up Space

Mass is the amount of matter in something
Volume is the amount of space taken up by something
Density is the mass of an object that takes up a certain volume. It is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume

Everyt­hing's a Chemical

Everything in the world that isn’t energy is a chemical or contains chemicals