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LING1002-1 Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Minimal Pair Test

A minimal pair is a pair of object­s/t­hings that differ in only one way
I.E : tomato soup / vegetable soup

The Minimal pair test can be used to compare two objects, or to test if an object belongs within a certain category

for example, the minimal pair test can be used to determine if a sausage is a sandwich.
The minimal pair is: sausage / sausage sandwich.
Most people visualise the sausage as a normal sausage, but visualise a sausage sandwich as something different.
From this we can infer that sausages do not fall into the sandwich category


A prototype is a quinte­sse­ntial example of a category.
a carrot is a prototype vegetable.
a parrot is a prototype bird

Some items within a category display asymme­trical simila­rity.
An emu is like a wagtail, but a wagtail isn't like an emu
From this we can determine that wagtails are more a prototype
for birds than emus are

Place of Articu­lation - Vowel

Vowel articu­lation is determined by the placement of the tongue.
it can be high like "­ee"
it can be low like "­ah"
it can be front like "­ee"
it can be back like "­ow"

The chart above is a diagram of the human mouth.
the vowel symbols are placed where the tongue is
when they are said

Manner of Articu­lation - Vowels

Vowels can be extended or longer than normal to create a 'new' sound
Lip rounding


A diphthong is a complex vowel sound.
some sounds, like "ay', "­ou" and "­oi"
are not made up of one simple sound

A diphthong is when two vowel sounds are combined
into one, more complex sound

Depending on the scenario, the transition between
the two sounds may be more or less noticeable

Four Factors of Articu­lation

Where the air is going and how it is moving in the mouth
The action of the vocal folds: open, partially closed, etc
Place of Articu­lation
Where the main constr­iction of airflow is
Manner of Articu­lation
How is the airflow being constr­icted

Place of Articu­lation - Consonants

Two lips
Labio dental
Lip + Teeth
Teeth + Tongue
Tongue + Ridge behind the teeth
Further back than alveolar ridge
Tongue tip + Roof of the mouth
Tongue body + Roof of the mouth
Tongue body + Soft palate
Tongue + Uvula
Tongue + Back of the pharynx
Glottis / Vocal folds


Some consonants are voiced, this means when we say them
we use our voice rather than just a basic airflow.

S is unvoiced
Z is voiced


The action of the body to produce sound
The property of the sound wave in the air
Properties perceived by the hearers
Phonetics is the study of the physical properties of speech and sound

Garden path sentences

A garden path sentence is a sentence that starts with one type of structure
then changes into another.
When you realise this you have to re-process it as it doesn't make sense

"the old man the boat"


A merger is when two vowel sounds merge into one.
I.E they are perceived as the same sound by speakers

"­cau­ght­" vs 'cot"

Types of Linguistic Knowledge

Knowledge of sounds and their patterns : What sounds, and in what contexts those sounds, are used in your native language.
Knowledge of meaningful parts of words and their organi­sation : What the individual parts are, their possible combin­ations and in what order they are used
Knowledge of form-m­eaning pairings
Knowledge of well-f­orm­edness according to the pricniples by which words are combined in the languag
Knowledge of the physical and social world : What we guess about what other people know, intend and expect