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Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

All lessons of UCSPOL 3rd quarter

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


A. Food Taboos
- A food taboo is a prohib­ition against consuming certain foods.
- Forbidden
- These food taboos or prohib­itions may be associated with special events such as childb­irth, pregnancy, menstrual period or breast feeding.
- In some cases, dietary rules are thought to be a result of health consid­era­tions or other practical reasons.
- Some foods may be prohibited during certain religious periods like during the Holy Week, at certain stages of life such as when one is pregnant, or to certain classes of people like priests or religious people, even though the food is otherwise permitted.
Some dishes that consider illegal:
“batcha” “pagpag” “doubl­e-dead meat”
1. Republic Act No. 8485 - declares that it is completely "­illegal to slaughter a dog or cat for personal trade or slaugh­tering a dog or cat for commercial trade and consum­ption.
2. Any meat of animals considered as endang­ered. Meat of monkeys, tortoise (pawikan), monitor lizards (bayawak), or rare birds are unacce­ptable to eat either by public standards or by law.
3. Any food that violates human dignity because they are not anymore acceptable for human consum­ption by public opinion. Such are like the "­dou­ble­-dead meat" or "­bot­cha­" pork, beef and chicken meat coming from previously already dead animals butchered to be sold for human consum­ption at signif­icantly low prices compared to the fresh ones. Another is the "­pag­pag­" which are food that are left over chicken or pork from restau­rants salvaged and remade into another dish.

B. The Standby (Istambay) Phenomenon
- The Filipino term "­ist­amb­ay" is derived from the English idiom "on standb­y". Istambay is a localized version of standby, which over the years has developed a set of peculiar charac­ter­istics that signify a particular subsector in Philippine society.
- One definition of istambay is: "A person who does not have work and who usually hangs-out on street corner­s."

C. Political Dynasty
- Another interest of issue in the country is about political dynasty, a phenomenon with socioe­conomic undert­ones.
- Political dynasties which refer to families whose members are engaged in politics have been in the Philippine political structure since the past.

D. Philippine Elections
- Opposition – inherent decision of democracy


Texting Technology
▪ Text messaging
- or simply texting can be done by composing and sending electronic messages from one person to another using mobile phones or portable devices over a phone network.
- Techni­cally, the term refers to messages sent via the Short Message Service (SMS). Nowadays, the technology has expanded to include multimedia messages (MMS) including image, videos, and sound content, as well as ideograms, commonly known as emoji.
Selfie Phenomenon
▪ Selfie
- has been defined as a self-p­ortrait photog­raph, normally shot with a digital camera or camera phone held in the hand or braced by a selfie stick.


▪ Sociology
- Deals with the study of society and social intera­ctions taking place.
- It also deals with the origin evolution and develo­pment of human society.
- It is focused on all kinds of social intera­ctions, social relati­ons­hips, social organi­zat­ions, structure and process.
Areas of Sociology
Social Organi­zation
- Includes the study of social groups, social instit­utions, social strati­fic­ation, mobility, ethnic relations, and bureau­cracy.
Social Psychology
- Tackles human behavior or nature as a result of group life, person­ality formation, social attitude and collective behavior.
Social Change, Social Organi­zation and Social Disorg­ani­zation
- Deals with the study of changes in the society and culture and the factors resulting from such change. It also studies crime, delinq­uency, family conflict, poverty, subver­sion, unempl­oyment and a wide range of current social issues and problems.
- Studies the behavior of a given population and its relati­onship to present social instit­utions.
- Is concerned with population size, compos­ition, change and quality and on how they influence the economic political, and social systems.
Sociol­ogical Theory and Method
- Is concerned with the applic­ation of the results of sociol­ogical studies to solve a various human problem.

▪ Anthro­pology
- Anthro­pol­ogy's goal is to describe and explain human variation or the observed simila­rities and differ­ences in people through time and across space.
- Anthro­pology draws and builds upon knowledge from the social biological sciences as well as the humanities and physical sciences to understand the full sweep and complexity of cultures across all of human history.
- Man
Branches of Anthro­pology
Cultural Anthro­pology
- Studies human cultures, beliefs, ideas, techno­logies, economies, practices, values, and other spheres of social and rational organi­zation. This branch is primarily based on cultural unders­tanding gained through actual experi­ences, or partic­ipant observ­ations of human popula­tions.
Physical Anthro­pology
- Deals with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings.
- Studies both the ancient and recent past of humans through the material remains such as artifacts, fossils, and bone fragments.
Linguistic Anthro­pology
- Studies the relations between language and culture in relation to human biology, human reasoning and human language.
Applied Anthro­pology
- Deals with the applic­ation of facts, perspe­ctives, theories and procedures in identi­fying, assessing, and solving social problems.

▪ Political Science
Study of the state and govern­ment. It is concerned about policies of the govern­ment.
- Aristotle - politics defined political science as the study of the state, ancient philos­opher.
- It deals compre­hen­sively with the theory and practice of politics it also focuses on the political systems, political behavior and political culture.
- State – (people) more powerful than the govern­ment.
- Government – represent the state
Major Subdiv­isions of Political Science
Political Theory
- Focuses on the ideas of classical thinkers such as Aristotle, Niccolo Machia­velli, Cicero, and Plato among others.
Compar­ative Politics
- Deals with the incisive evaluation and comparison of the doctrines of various consti­tut­ions, of political actors, legisl­ature and other allied fields.
• Doctrines of Consti­tution (most famous) – Federa­lism: different states with specified laws.
• Unitary System
Public Admini­str­ation
- Focuses on the implem­ent­ation of government policies, the academic discip­lines involved the principles governing civil servants working in the govern­ment.
Intern­ational Relations
- Delve on nation: state's intera­ctions including interg­ove­rnm­ental and transn­ational organi­zation. A huge deal.
- Governs the relati­onships between indivi­duals and the govern­ment, and the relati­onship of indivi­duals among themselves directly affecting society. Intera­ction between people and govern­ment.
highest law
lowest law
Ordinance is uncons­tit­utional
Why it became an ordinance?
Regional Trial Court - Court of Appeals - Supreme Court
Political Method­ology
- Focuses on the quanti­tative methods used in the study of politics combining statis­tics, mathem­atics and formal theory.
Example: When we will be back to normal? – based on data


- Intera­cting with each other and having a common culture; sharing common geogra­phical or territ­orial domains, and having relatively common aspira­tions.
Theories on Human Society
- Even before sociology was born there have been many concepts developed focusing on human society. In the beginning of human civili­zation, early philos­ophers have already dealt with society, looking into its structure in the attempt to solve its variety of problems that emerge every time. Social philos­ophers have already predicted, since then, that a study on behavior would someday emerge.
▪ Plato
- In his Republic Plato (427-347 BC) laid his standards for an ideal society ruled by philos­oph­er-­kings assisted by equally and intell­ect­ually gifted "­gua­rdi­ans."
▪ Aristotle
- In his work “Politics” Aristotle (384-322 BC) stated that man is self-s­uff­icient and that those who are unable to live in society and have no needs in life must be either "­bea­sts­" or "­god­s."
▪ St. Augustine
- According to St. Augustine (354 – 430 AD) as stated in his City of God he described society's ultimate pilgrimage towards the kingdom of God which is closely identified with the church, the community that worshipped God.
▪ Sir Thomas More
- In his master­piece Utopia, (1516), Sir Thomas More (1468-­1535) coined the word "­uto­pia­" that refers to the ideal, imaginary island nation whose political system he described.
Types of Societies
- Different societies are catego­rized according to methods of subsis­tence, the ways by which humans apply needs. Anthro­pol­ogists, on the other hand, have classified different societies throughout human history according to the degree to which different groups within a society have access to resources, prestige or power. In general, sociol­ogists have placed societies in three broad catego­ries, namely: pre-in­dus­trial, indust­rial, and post-i­ndu­strial societies.
1. Pre – Industrial Societies
During the pre-in­dus­trial society, the main economic activity is food production carried out through the utiliz­ation of human and animal labor. Partic­ularly, these societies are subdivided according to their level of technology and their method of producing food.
❖ Hunting Gathering Society
- The main method of food production is the collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals on a daily basis. Humans gather and hunt around for food as nomads. They do not establish permanent villages nor have a variety of artifacts. They usually form small groups such as bands and tribes.
❖ Pastoral Society
- The prevailing method food production during this period is through pastor­alism, slightly more efficient than the subsis­tence method. Instead of searching for food on a daily basis, the members of a pastoral society depend on domest­icated herd of animals to meet their need for food.
❖ Hortic­ultural Society
- Hortic­ultural societies have learned how to raise fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots that have provided them their main source of food. Their level of technology and complexity is similar to pastoral societies. Some hortic­ultural groups practice the slash-­and­-burn method or the kaingin system to raise crops.
❖ Agrarian Society
Societies which applied agricu­ltural techno­logical advances to cultivate crops over a large area. Sociol­ogists use the phrase agricu­ltural revolution to describe this period about 8,500 years ago, charac­terized this period to the techno­logical changes that occurred leading to extensive cultiv­ation of crops and raising of farm animals.
❖ Feudal Society
- As an offshoot of the increased food produc­tion, several groups become wealthy and able to acquire lands and declared these as their own domain. This is being described as feudal society based on ownership of land.
2. Industrial Societies
- A new economic system emerged between the 15th and 16th centuries began to replace feudalism. This is capita­lism, the predom­inant economic system of industrial societies. Capita­lism, charac­terized by free compet­ition, free market and the right to acquire private property, emerged.
3. Post Industrial Society
- More advanced societies, called post-i­ndu­strial societies, dominated by inform­ation, services, and high techno­logy, surfaced.
4. Modern Society
- Charac­terized by mass production of all essential products such that the subsis­tence level of food production is now a thing of the past. Products are sold in markets in large quanti­ties. A new commodity— exchange, trade and commerce have become more efficient.


“That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabi­lities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” -Edward B. Tylor
“The way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time.” - The Cambridge English Dictionary

▪ Culture
- refers to all that man has made for himself through time, material or non-ma­terial, still useful or not anymore, all to provide benefits for his society.
Charac­ter­istics of Culture
✓ Culture is learned.
✓ Culture is transm­itted.
✓ Culture is adaptive.
✓ Culture is gratifying
✓ Culture is symbolic

Main types of Culture
1. Material culture
- deals with the physical culture, including contem­porary techno­logy, artifacts, relics, fossils, and other tangible remains of cultural develo­pment, past and present.
2. Non-Ma­terial culture
- deals with the intang­ibles including values, norms, beliefs, tradit­ions, and customs that collec­tively hold a society and shape indivi­duals as they interact within society.
Elements of Non- material Culture
▪ Beliefs
- are man’s perception about the reality of things and are shared ideas about how the world and his enviro­nment operate. Beliefs are influenced by emotions, attitudes, values, ideology, and religion.
▪ Values
- - refer to the broad prefer­ences of person on the approp­riate courses of action or decisions he has to take. Values are a reflection of a person’s sense of right and wrong. A person’s values sociol­ogi­cally influence his attitudes and behavior.
▪ Norms
- are society’s standard of morality, conduct, propriety, ethics, and legality. Norms vary according to age, gender, religion, politics, economics, ethnicity, or race to the group.
▪ Folkways
- are fairly weak forms or norms, whose violation is generally not considered serious within a particular culture. They are the habits, customs, and repetitive patterns of behavior.
▪ Ideas
- comprise man’s concepts of his physical, social and cultural world as manifested in people’s beliefs and values.
▪ Knowledge
- can be natural, supern­atural, magical or technical. These are the body of facts and beliefs that people accumulate over time.

Perspe­cti­ves­/Ap­pro­aches in the Study of Culture and Society
▪ Symbolic Intera­cti­onism
- It is a theore­tical perspe­ctive that examines the way partic­ipants in the social­ization choose and agree on the meaning symbols. This perspe­ctive holds that humans are symbol­man­ipu­lating and are capable of creative behavior.
▪ Functi­onalism
- It is the presup­poses that every aspect of society is interd­epe­ndent and contri­butes to the total functi­oning of society. To the govern­ment, the school and the family are signif­icant social instit­utions which proper functi­oning would make life in the society meaningful and produc­tive.
▪ Conflict
- Is another theore­tical perspe­ctive, which originated primarily out of Karl Marx’s writings on class struggles, presents society in a different light than do the functi­onalist and symbolic intera­cti­onist perspe­ctives.
- Conflict theorists note that unequal group usually have confli­cting values and agenda, causing them to compete against one another. This constant compet­ition between groups forms the basis for the ever-c­hanging nature of society.
▪ Dramat­urgical Perspe­ctive
- Is an intera­cti­onist perspe­ctive that analyzes human behavior in much the same way that a person would analyze the presen­tation of play to the audience.
*▪ Ethnom­eth­odology8
- Is a social­-cu­ltural perspe­ctive which emphasizes the process of intera­ction that uses interp­ersonal techniques to create situat­ional impres­sions and the importance of percep­tions of consensus among actors.


▪ Art
- includes the expression or applic­ation of human creative skill and imagin­ation.
▪ Language
– a system of commun­ication used by particular society. It is the most important tool of verbal commun­ication and it is where cultural differ­ences play it roles.
▪ Food
- is any substances consumed to provide nutrit­ional support for the body. It is one of the best ways to truly experience cultural differ­ences play it roles.
▪ Government
- which refers to the aggregated of persons of groups of persons exercising control and authority in the society.
▪ Costume
- A distin­gui­shing aspect of culture is the clothing or costume. It is a style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, gender, profes­sion, ethnicity or nation­ality.
▪ Religion
- A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things. Its structural features include a body of ideas beliefs, doctrines, ritual, and ceremo­nies.
▪ Education
- The process of teaching or learning, is oftentimes associated with a place or a building where boys and girls go almost every day carrying books, notebooks in order to attend classes and learn from the teachers.


The Primary Causes of Cultural Simila­rities
▪ Biological Simila­rities
- all people in the world have the same biological needs, namely food, clothing, shelter, and health care.
▪ Necessary Prereq­uisites for Social Being
- Society must fulfill some requir­ements in order to function, such as replacing members, teaching new members to partic­ipate, and the need to have partic­ipation in production and distri­bution.
▪ Psychic Unity of Mankind
- All human beings are alike in having similar ranges of emotion - the need for love, security, and language.
▪ Geogra­phical Enviro­nment
- The geogra­phical enviro­nment is charac­terized by certain limita­tions such as limited food, limited source of energy, and other delimiting factors of the people's enviro­nment.
▪ Cultural Diversity
- Every society in the world is unique from one another. Everyone has his own cultural practices, values and interests. Each culture has its distinct features and charac­ter­istics.

These Differ­ences in Culture can be attributed to the following factors:
A. . Though men all over the world have the same biological needs, they differ in ways in meeting them. Each culture adapts to its enviro­nment.
B. Differ­ences in geogra­phical charac­ter­istics like climate, topogr­aphy, or soil condition.
C. The absence or presence of natural resources.

▪ Ethnoc­entrism
- A feeling of superi­ority towards one's own group over other groups.
▪ Cultural Relativism
- The principle of regarding the beliefs, values, and practices of a culture from the viewpoint of that culture itself.


▪ Biological Evolution
- refers to the changes that occur in a population over time. These changes are produced at the genetic level as organism genes mutate or recombine in different ways during reprod­uction and are passed on to future genera­tions.
▪ Cultural Evolution
- refers to any learnt behavior (knowl­edge, attitudes, customs and ideas) that is passed from one generation to the next by learning.
▪ Anthro­pology
- deals with the study of origin, evolution and develo­pment of human species that is concerned with all people everyw­here, from those alive today back to who lived in past.
▪ Physic­al/­Bio­logical Anthro­pology
- is a branch that deals with the biological origins and evolution of man, variations of human species and their physical charac­ter­istics, including the study of different races.
Types of Dating Method:
1. Relative Dating
- is a dating process that is not precise where the sight, an artifact or human remains that cannot be determined is measured in comparison with the date of others determined already. Is a matter of whether something is younger than or older than something that can be or has been dated, or being in between two dates.
2. Absolute Dating
- is when the dating is more precise consid­ering it can be narrowed to a bracket of within years.
Methods to Use to Date Things
- Carbon-14 dating, also called radioc­arbon dating, it is a method of age determ­ination that depends upon the decay to nitrogen of radioc­arbon (carbon 14). This method was developed by a nuclear physicist Willard F. Libby.
- Is a radiom­etric method determ­ining the time of origin of rocks based upon the decay of radioa­ctive potassium 40 to radioa­ctive argon 40 in minerals and rocks. This method only dates inorganic materials like rocks and minerals.
- Is the most accurate and reliable procedure at present. It is done through radiogenic isotope facility. It is used to date the age of Callao man of the Philip­pines (67,000 years old.)
science that comprises the study of earth, its rock compos­ition and the process of changes.
✓ In geologic time, earth begin 6 billion years ago.
✓ Era-is divided by time blocks; it is a change on earth distinct created by an event and ended by other.
✓ Distur­bances - it refers to the changes in every era.
✓ Caused by earth condit­ions.
✓ Fossil­s-m­ate­rials embedded in the earth's crust serves as evidence of life in pre historic times.
✓ A 3.5 B years old single­-celled microbes is the world's oldest fossil found inside the lump of sandstone rock in Western Australia.
Tertiary period - is also called Age of Mammals. It is was the beginning of Cenozoic era which started at 65million BC and lasted for 63 million years.
Quaternary Period - beginning about 1.8 million years ago, includes Halocene and Peisto­cene.
✓ Modern man first appeared 500.000 BC.
- Is a scientific study of life in the past of geologic periods. It deals with the life forms known fossils.
Darwin's Evolution Theory Of Natural Selection
S.O.T.F – Survival of the Fittest
- Those indivi­duals who possess superior physical, behavi­oral, or other attributes are more likely to survive than those which are not so well endowed.
The Evolution of Man from the Theory of Natural Selection
– looks at human being at both biological and cultural perspe­ctives. Man, as an animal underwent to the process of biological evolution and has shared charac­ter­istics with other animals in the past, partic­ularly what we called “homin­ids”.
- Adaptation to enviro­nment is a must in order to survive.
- Man who has adapted well to changes in the enviro­nment was able to develop a brain that is capable of rational charac­ter­istics where he can be able to develop culture that resulted to the changes of behavior.
The Evolution of Primates
▪ Tree Shrew, Tarsier, Lemur, Loris
The Emergence of Man
- the Miocene was a period of enviro­nmental conditions highly favorable to arboreal primates, with a mild climate, moist and wetter than at present. Rain forests covered most of Asia, Africa and Europe.
▪ NAME: DRYOPI­THECUS (Greek for "tree ape"); pronounced DRY-oh­-pi­th-­ECK-us
- is the first fossils of the great apes to be discovered it had a large brain and could stand like a chimpa­nzee.
HISTORICAL EPOCH: Middle Miocene (15-10 million years ago) EPOCH: Middle Miocene (15-10 million years ago)
SIZE AND WEIGHT: About four feet long and 25 pounds
DIET: Fruit
DISTIN­GUI­SHING CHARAC­TER­ISTICS: Moderate size: long front arms: chimpanzee Like head
- First found in France, then Europe, China
- The best preserved and best known Dryoph­itecus is the Dryopi­thecus Africanus. It is a small-­brained compared to human. They got about to the tree Swinging by branches rather than walking.
▪ NAME: POLIO PITHEC­ANT­HROPUS (Greek for "­Pli­ocene ape"); pronounced PLY-oh­-pi­th-ECK
HISTORICAL EPOCH: Middle Miocene (15 10 million years ago)
SIZE AND WEIGHT: About three feet tall and 50 pounds
DIET: Leaves
DISTIN­GUI­SHING CHARAC­TER­ISTICS: Short face with large eyes: long arms and legs
- They had the look and feature similar of a gibbon. Its skeleton & teth suggest they are relatives of gibbon and Siamangs.
▪ NAME: PROCONSUL (Greek for "­before Consul­," a well-known circus ape); pronounced pro-co­n-sul
HISTORICAL EPOCH: Early Miocene (23 17 million years ago)
SIZE AND WEIGHT: About 3-5 feet long and 25-100 pounds
DIET: Omnivorous
DISTIN­GUI­SHING CHARAC­TER­ISTICS: Monkey­-like posture: flexible hands and feet: lack of tail
- Considered to be very early ape. viewed ancestor of chimpanzee and gorillas.
▪ GIGANT­OPI­THECUS is the largest known primate. They are gramin­ivorous – they eat small through grass seeds, stem, and rhizomes that requires a lot of grinding.
▪ NAME: OREOPI­THECUS (Greek for "­mou­ntain ape"); pronounced ORE-ee­-oh­-pi­th-­ECK-US
HISTORICAL EPOCH: Late Miocene (10-5 million years ago)
SIZE AND WEIGHT: About 4 feet tall and 50-75 pounds
DIET: Plants, nuts and fruit
DISTIN­GUI­SHING CHARAC­TER­ISTICS: Longer arms than legs: monkey­-like feet
- It was directly related to dryoph­iteous, however it was bipedal to austro­alo­phi­teous.
- It is said that oreopi­thecus suggest to walk and distin­ctively had high pelvis.
▪ NAME: RAMAPH­ITECUS / SIVAPI­THECUS (Greek for “Siva Ape”); pronounced SEE-va­h-p­ith­-ECK-us
HISTORICAL EPOCHE: Middle­-Late Miocene (12 – 7 million years ago)
SIZE AND WEIGHT: About five feet long and 5-75 pounds
DIET: Plants
DISTIN­GUI­SHING CHARAC­TER­ISTICS: Chimpanzee – like feet: flexible wrists large canines
- Former discov­eries gave it name
- Ranaph­itecus and was suggested as old ancestor of humans in direct line.
- Teeth, jaws and palate are human like – making scientists think of it as hominid status
– the Hominids close relatives of humans. The Austra­lop­hitecus is an extinct genus of hominids that has evolved in Eastern Africa around for million years ago. It spread across the continent until two million years before they become extinct.
- Is an extinct hominid that lived between 2.9 to 3.9 million years ago.
- It is viewed more closely related to the genus Homo (including Human Homo Sapiens)
- The fossils Lucy found by Donald Johanson is the most complete and oldest hominid dated 3.2 m years.
- Afarensis is biped that walked run and stood.
- It is also believed to be both tree and land dwellers.
- Oldest hominid found.
- It was the southern african counte­rpart of the Afarensis.
- Named as The South Ape of Africa­"
- Bipedal hominids with arms slightly larger than the legs. slightly more human cranial features.
- Human like posture based on the fossils found in year 1942 at Taung lime line.
▪ AUSTRA­LOP­HITECUS ROBUSTUS (Paran­thropus Robustus)
-First discovered in 1938 and was called Parant­hropus
-It is bigger, bulkier, and more muscular and had larger moral teeth than africanus
- Is also called as "nut cracker man" because its face and cheek are so massive.
- Close relative of Robustus, same brain size but a better one
- Is "dead end" branch of hominid line.
- First hominid to use stone tools.
– Man alone is a rational animal. He alone has art or aesthetic applic­ation. Man has a language while other animals may commun­icate. Language is unique to a man. He can bring ideas that make, create, and invent tools or thing he needs to create CULTURE.
Man has history, recording his past so that he may learn it from it as a guide to his future. Man is selfco­nsc­ious, even though some other species have self-a­war­eness, the self-c­ons­cious state of man is unique.
▪ Homo Habilis
- Means “hand man” because he made tool
- Is believed to be the first of the “great ape” type creatures to have evolved into Homo (man).
- Existed about 2 million to 1.5 years ago
▪ Homo Erectus / Upright Man
- Is believed to be the first creature to stand fully upright.
- He was believed to be the first to use fire: built camp fire and made simple ovens with hot stones.
▪ Homo Sapiens
- Based on fossil found in Africa, it existed 400,000 years ago
- Is believed to be ancestor of all human beings
Charac­ter­istics and Habits:
o Bipedal stance and gait
o Brain capacity about 82 inches
o High forehead
o Small teeth and jaw
o Define chin
- Has ability of constr­ucting tools and make symbols such as used in language and writing.
- Early homo sapiens used simple techno­logy. Their tools were in form of chipped stone which sharpened to be used as simple knife.
- Their garments where made from animal hide,
- Their shelters were make-shift shelters if natural cave is not available.


▪ Cultural Identity
- The cultural identity of an individual refers to the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is considered as part of a person's self-c­onc­eption and self- percep­tion.
- It pertains to one's nation­ality, ethnicity, religion, social class, genera­tion, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture.

▪ Ethnicity
- Is a condition in which a social group belongs to a common natiso­cioonal or cultural tradition, other traits in common.
- Linguistic groups include the Ivatans, Ilocanos, Pangas­ine­nses, Kapamp­angans, Tagalogs, Bicolanos, Visayans (Masba­tenos, Hiliga­yno­ns/­Ilo­nggos, Cebuanos, Boholanos, Warays and Suriga­onons) Maranaos, Subanons and Zamboa­ngu­eno).

▪ Cultural Background
- Essent­ially consists of the ethnic, religious, racial, gender, lingui­stic, or other socioe­conomic factors and values that shape on indivi­dual’s upbrin­ging.
- Indivi­dual’s upbringing and identity.
- Can be shaped at the family, societal, or organi­zat­ional level. Sociol­ogi­cally, people with different cultural background need to interact with each other.

▪ Gender and Sexuality
- A common distin­gui­shing factor of a person's cultural backgr.
a) Gender
- Refers to the personal traits and social roles of the male and female members of society.
b) Sexuality
- Is the state of being either masculine or feminine.
➢ A person may experience identity crisis when he/she does not accept or understand his/her sexuality or is unable to understand his/her status.
➢ You may experience Identity Crisis but you may never act on it

▪ Socio-­Eco­nomic Status
- Another common cultural identi­fic­ation factor is the level of an indivi­dual's social standing and financial position in society.
- A personal or family's financial and social esteem on the basis of income, education, and occupa­tion.
- Hence, it is the totality of a person's social position and wealth combined.
The Socio-­eco­nomic class
- Refers to the status of every individual from the sociol­ogical and economic points of view.
Social Status
- Means a person's standing or rank in the social ladder of strati­fic­ation based on prestige, power, popula­rity, etc. economic status means a person's place in the society's economic strati­fic­ation based on wealth, property, and total assets.
- You can be poor but have high social status.
Economic Status
- Person’s place in the society’s economic strati­fic­ation based on wealth, property, and total assets.


– relating to or charac­ter­istic of people or human beings “the human body”.
- Synonyms: anthro­pom­orphic, anthro­poid, humanoid, hominid “in human form”.
- Humans are cultural being.
– the aggregate of the people’s:
▪ Ideas
▪ Beliefs
▪ Traditions
▪ Languages
▪ Arts
▪ Technology
▪ Arts that distin­guishes from animals
o Paleol­ithic Era ended in 9600 BC with the end of Ice Age
o The Paleol­ithic Age was the longest period in the history of the Stone Age.
o During the Paleol­ithic Age, the hunter­-ga­therer was nomadic.
o During the Paleol­ithic Age, the hunter­-ga­therer was nomadic.
o Created "cave art"
o The humans made different tools from stones and pebbles. These tools were not very efficient.
o The oldest recogn­izable tools are stone choppers made almost 1 million years ago.
o These tools were made by chipping stones and pebbles.
o Near the end of the Paleol­ithic Age, the humans started to make shelters, wear sewn clothes, and built sculpt­ures.
o During this time, they greatly improved their tools-­bui­lding skills.
o The Neolithic Age was terminated with the introd­uction of metal tools between 6000 BC and 2500 BC
o With the termin­ation of the Neolithic Age, the Stone Age came to an end in 2500 BC.
o The beginning of agricu­lture
o Permanent settle­ments were a major step in the advance of civili­zation.
o Used advanced tools, made pottery, developed weaving skills.
o Marked the first-time humans started to work with metal
o Supplied the most useful metal known during the third and second millennia B.C. It replaced (primarily cold-h­amm­ered) copper and stone as the metal of choice for tools, weapons, and art.
o Started the widespread of using bronze, made from copper and tin.
• Sumerians in Mesopo­tamia
• Egyptians
• Minoans of Crete
• Hittites of Asia Manor
- Is the period where the humanity left pre-hi­story and entered into history with the formation of modern society.


▪ A member of a political community must be able to intern­alize the preamble of the consti­tution by heart.
▪ Preamble of the 1987 consti­tution (page 54)
▪ Defined as a MEMBERSHIP in the political community which is personal and more or less personal character.
▪ It is the status of character being a CITIZEN.
▪ A citizen of a given state is one who owes permanent allegiance and is entitled with protection based on the legal and political concep­tions.
▪ Being a citizen necess­arily entails assertions of one's rights and privileges and conversely an unwavering perfor­mance of his duties and obliga­tions to the govern­ment.
The CONSTI­TUTION recognizes the HUMAN RIGHTS of every citizen as enumerated with the BILL OF RIGHTS.
• Natural Rights
• Civil Rights
• Political Rights
• Economic Rights
Human Rights
– INHERENT to all Human Being what ever our nation­ality, sex, ethnic, origin, etc. We are all equally entitled without discri­min­ation.
Universal Human Rights
– are often guided by the law in forms of:
• Treaties
• Customary Intern­ational Laws
• General principles and other sources of intern­ational laws
The Intern­ational Human Rights Law lays down OBLIGA­TIONS of the government to ACT in a certain way or to REFRAIN from certain acts in order to promote and protect human rights and fundam­ental freedoms of indivi­duals or groups.
• Every member of the society DESERVES human dignity
• It refers to the individual or group’s sense of RESPECT, SELF-W­ORTH, PHYSICAL, and PSYCHO­LOGICAL INTEGRITY, and EMPOWE­RMENT
MORAL, ETHICAL, LEGAL, and POLITICAL discus­sions use the concept of DIGNITY
• As a citizen we always think of the promotion of the COMMON GOOD or GENERAL WELFARE
• A respon­sible citizen promotes the common good by obeying the law: paying taxes, informing himself about political issues. volunt­eering in the community and respecting the rights and opinions of others.
Willing to sacrifice his individual interests for the collective good of the nation. He remembers his civic duties and serves his country despite any discomfort such a course might bring.
• Respon­sible citizens obey the law. A harmonious society has order. Every citizen implicitly consents in mainta­ining social order by upholding the law even when he does not like it. If he believes that the law is unfair, he resorts to the political process to change the law in a manner society prescr­ibes.
• Good citizens are familiar with politics and keep the government accoun­table by staying on top with its latest procee­dings.
• Respon­sible citizen volunteer in the community and when they see a need, they do not wait for someone else (like the govern­ment) to address it.
• Respon­sible citizens respect the rights and opinions of others and do not use for or abuse government to silence people who have different views because such actions subvert a free society.
• Respon­sible citizen listens to others with sincerity and work with, fellow citizens to find the best solution to problems.


Modes of Adaptation
Approved Means
Societal Goals
Most Common Deviance
1. Homosexual
6. Lesbianism
11. Atheism
2. Drug addiction
7. Perversion
12. Political extremism
3. Alcoholism
8. Mental illness
13. Ear piercing
4. Murder
9. Politics
14. Tattooing
5. Prosti­tution
10. Communism


• Direct Control
- Is exercised by the primary groups like family, peer group, who praise or condemn the behavior of an indivi­dual.
• Indirect Control
– Is exercised by the secondary groups like tradit­ions, customs, instit­utions etc.
• Positive Means
– of social controls is through praise, prizes, fame, respect, and promotion.
• Negative Means
– include criticism, gossip, punish­ment, and ostracism.
• Formal ControL
- Is designed and regulated by some authority like the government which makes laws to control order.
• Informal ControL
- Is the unwritten rules and regulation charac­terized by informal authority like criticism, sociab­ility, and public opinion.
• Social Disorg­ani­zation
- Cultural conflict suggests that deviant and criminal behavior results when two normative systems come into contact.
• Labeling
- Deviant behavior suggests that what defines deviances is the action of others or by the actors themse­lves.
• Value Conflict
- Holds that acts are considered criminal or deviant because they are at variance with a group's values.
• Deviance
– is defines as the recognized violation of cultural norms.


▪ Encult­uration
- is the process by which indivi­duals acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values that enable them to become functi­oning members of their societies.
▪ Social­ization
- is the process whereby the indivi­dual's behavior is modified to conform to the expect­ation of the group.
Three Levels of Human Develo­pment
1. Vegetative level
- Refers to embryo and early infancy. Charac­terized by preocc­upation with food.
-The infant grab things and brings them directly to the mouth. The main thought of the infant survival.
2. Animal Level
- Charac­terized by desires for sex and reprod­uction. At this stage man is no different from animals in their need for food and sex.
- At this stage, the social­ization of man is incomp­lete.
3. Human Level
-is considered the attainment of a person­ality.
-This implies the assimi­lation of behavior, attitudes, and values the society considers necessary and important to the well-being of the group.
-It’s about us, what governs the develo­pment of person­ality.
-This when you become you.
Social Norms
- are standards of behavior which tell whether an action is right or wrong; approp­riate or not.
1. Folkways
- The tradit­ional behavior or way of life of a particular community or group of people.
- The ways of living, thinking, and acting in a human group, built up without conscious design but serving as compelling guides of conduct.
EXAMPLES OF FILIPINO FOLKWAYS: Mano Po (Blessing of the hand/ means "­rig­ht" [opposite of "­lef­t"] and “po” is a word you say to show respect. A gesture where the younger shows respect to the elder.
• Po and Opo
- It is a kind of respect you use among elders in the Filipino culture.
- It is also a custom provided in the Philip­pines to mean respect for older people.
Po and opo are also distinctly Filipino ways of showing respect to one’s elders. The po is usually affixed to the end of sentences or phrases when one is addressing someone older than him or her.
• Bayanihan
- It is a Filipino term taken from the word bayan referring to a nation, town, or community. The whole term bayanihan refers to a spirit of communal unity or effort to achieve a particular objective
- It is helping out one’s neighbor as a community, and doing a task together, thus lessening the workload and making the job easier.
• Harana
- It is an old Filipino courtship tradition of serenading women, probably a Spanish influence.
- It was a tradit­ional form of courtship in the Philip­pines wherein men introduced themselves and/or wooed women by singing underneath her window at night. It was widely practiced in old Philip­pines with a set of protocols, a code of conduct and a specific style of music.
• Pamama­nhikan
- From the word panhik [which means to ascend stairs], is “the asking for the girls parents permission to wed the affianced pair”. The custom symbolizes honor, seeking their blessings and approval before getting married.
2. Mores
- Special folkways with moral and ethical values which are strongly held and emphas­ized.
- Mores is defined as the unspoken but understood norms of a community or society.
3. Laws
- Are formalized norms enacted by people vested with authority. These laws reinforce the mores.
4. Sanctions
- Are penalties or other means of enforc­ement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regula­tion.
- A threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule, official permission or approval for an action.
A. Informal Sanctions
• Come in unfavo­rable or favorable public opinion, giving or withdr­awing of support, or gossip.
• Come in unfavo­rable or favorable public opinion, giving or withdr­awing of support, or gossip.
B. Formal Sanctions
• May be in the nature of getting high academic ratings, award in schools, promotion or salary increase for employees, certif­ication of merits or other citation fort achiev­ement.
• Are actions that are legalized and official in nature and enforced by an author­itative force.
A. Physical Sanctions
• Bring physical pain or pleasure
B. Psycho­logical Sanctions
• Address the feeling and emotions of a person.
• Positive psycho­logical sanctions found are found in compli­ments ribbons, badge, and awards.
• Negative psycho­logical sanctions are found in insults and reject­ions.
Status and Role
- Refers to one's position or place in a social group.
o Ascribed
- status that is assigned to an individual from birth.
o Achieved
- which one acquires either by choice or by force or through some form of compet­ition and individual effort.
- Refers to the functional and dynamic aspect of the status.
- It is the totality of cultural patterns and behavior expected of a particular status.
- A socially expected behavior pattern usually determined by an indivi­dual's status, in a particular society.
Social Values
– are cultural standards that indicate the general good deemed desirable for organized social life.
- These are assumption of what is right and important for society.
Forms of Roles
• Refers to the rights, duties, and obliga­tions an individual has while occupying a status.
• Refers to how the individual actually behaves while occupying the status.
• Arises when an individual encounters confli­cting demands from his two or more statuses.
• Refers to the indivi­duals repertoire (list) of perfor­mances towards variety of others while he/she occupies a given status.
Social­ization for Sex Roles
o Societies categorize their members into males and females and each is viewed as a distinct sex or gender.


– a collection of indivi­duals who have regular contact and frequent intera­ction, mutual influence, common feeling of camara­derie, and who work together to achieve a common set of goals.
Social Group
– has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar charac­ter­istics, and collec­tively have a sense of unity.
Charac­ter­istics of Groups
▪ The members interact with each other over some period of time.
▪ Each member identifies with the group and is recognized as part of the group by the other members.
▪ Each member is entitled to certain privileges and at the same time is expected to accept certain respon­sib­ilities and duties.
▪ There is specia­liz­ation, or role in their activities which is carried out by the members of the group.
Types of Groups
▪ Primary Group
– a group held together by intimate, face-t­o-face relati­ons­hips, formed by family and enviro­nmental associ­ations and regarded as basic to social life and culture.
Examples of Primary Groups
o Family
– a group of consisting of parents and children living together in a household, people united by ties of blood.
o Neighb­orhood
– a district, especially one forming a community within a town or city, are often social commun­ities with face to face intera­ction among members.
• Bayanihan – “being in a bayan”, which refers to the spirit of communal unity, work and cooper­ation to achieve a particular goal.
o Peer Group
– a group of people of approx­imately the same age, status, and interests, with a loosely organized struct­ured; often called “gang” “barkada” or “tropa”.
▪ Secondary Group
– are another type of social group. They have the opposite charac­ter­istics of primary groups. They can be small or large and are mostly impersonal and usually short term. These groups are typically found at work and school.
o Function of Secondary Group
– Since secondary groups are establish to perform functions, people’s roles are more interc­han­geable. A secondary group is one you have chosen to be a part of.
Examples of Secondary Group:
• Vendor to Client relati­onship
• Workers in an office
• Doctor to patient
• Athletic Team
• A University Class


The social dynamics of in-groups and out-groups
▪ In – Groups
o Sense of Belong­ingness
o Sense of Identity
o Mutual Social Behavior
▪ Out – Group
o Different
o Strang­eness
o Avoidance
o Dislike
Social Group: According to Purpose
1. Task Group
– formed to accomplish jobs, tasks or obliga­tion.
2. Relati­onship Group
– formed to fulfill the feeling of compan­ion­ship.
3. Influence Group
– formed to support a particular ideology.
Social Group: According to Social Organi­zation
1. Gemein­scaft
o German term for “commu­nity”
o Composed of many primary groups that has personal relati­onships with each other
2. Gesell­scaft
o German term for “society”
o Where relati­onships are indivi­dua­listic, impers­onal, formal, and realistic
These concepts were developed by German sociol­ogist Ferdinand Tonnies (1887) to differ­entiate between urban and rural life or community living and living in the mass society.
▪ Peer Pressure
– is a social pressure by members of one’s peer group to take a certain action in order to be accepted.


Reference Group
– is a collection of people that we use as a standard of comparison for ourselves regardless of whether we are part of that group. We rely on reference groups to understand social norms, which then shape our values, ideas, behavior, and appear­ance. This means that we also use them to evaluate the relative worth, desira­bility, or approp­ria­teness of these things.
▪ Informal Reference Group
– most reference groups are informal, which means that they are based on the group members’ shared interests and goals. Informal groups are not structured with a specific goal in mind. Group members interact on a very personal level. Examples of informal reference groups include:
o Families
o A group of local mothers
o Peer groups
▪ Formal Reference Group
– have a specific goal or mission. They also have a specific structure and positions of authority. Examples of formal reference groups include:
o Labor unions
o Mensa, a society for people with high IQ
o Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
Reference Groups Perform Three Basic Function:
1. They serve a normative function by setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief.
“The signif­icant thing about a reference group is, in fact, that its norms provide frames of reference which actually influence the altitude and the behavior of a person” (T. Newcomb, 1953)
2. They also perform a comparison function by serving as a standard against which people can measure themselves and others.
3. They serve not only as sources of current evaluation but also as sources of aspiration and goal attainment (as a means of antici­patory social­iza­tion). A person who chooses to become a professor or a lawyer begins to identify with that group and becomes socialized to have certain goals and expect­ations.


▪ Social Network
– is a social structure that exists between actors, indivi­duals, or organi­zation. A social network indicates the way that people and organi­zations are connected through various social famili­ari­ties, ranging from casual acquai­ntance to close familial bonds.
▪ Ties
– are the various types of connec­tions between these nodes. Ties are assessed in terms of strength. Loose connec­tions, like mere acquai­nta­nces, are called weak ties. Strong ties, like family bonds are called strong ties.
▪ Node
- person or organi­zation partic­ipating in the network.
▪ Social Network Theory
– is the study of how people, organi­zations or groups interact with others inside their network. Unders­tanding the theory is easier when you examine the individual pieces starting with the largest element, which is networks, and working down to the smallest element which is the actor.
▪ Ego-Ce­ntric Networks
– are connected with a single node or indivi­dual. For example, you the node, connected to all of your close friends.
▪ Socio-­Centric Networks
– are closed networks by default. Two common­ly-used examples of this type of network are children in a classroom or workers inside an organi­zation.
▪ Open System Networks
– the boundary lines are not clearly defined. A few examples in this type of network are America’s elite class, connec­tions between corpor­ations, their chain of influe­ncers of a particular decision. Due to lack of clearly – defines bounda­ries, this type of network is considered the most difficult to study.
▪ Social Media
– is the collective of online commun­ica­tions channels dedicated to commun­ity­-based input, intera­ction, content- sharing, and collab­ora­tion.