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COMP Career Counseling Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

william james college comprehensive assessment study guide career counseling

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


foundation goes back to mental hygiene treatment (improve treatment of people with mental illness) by Phillipe Pinel. Before him, mental illness was seen as spiritual disorder. Dorothea Dix founded private asylums and state hospitals.
Vocational guidance movement was developed by Frank Parsons in 1909 Three step process involves: 1) unders­­ta­nding aptitudes, abilities, interests, etc., 2) gaining knowledge about careers, 3) reasoning about relati­­onship between the former and latter.
Parsons founded Boston Vocational Bureau in 1908. It matched young men between their intere­­st­s­/­ap­­titudes with profes­­sions.
Career counseling focuses on work or career related issues; intera­­ction is psycho­­lo­gical in nature, with the relati­­onship between counselor and client serving an important psycho­­lo­gical function
Career counseling grew out of vocational psychology in the 1950s and 60s, which was influenced by the industrial revolution after WWII. Was one of the first times were people were choosing a career (vs doing what fathers had done).
Legisl­­ative antece­­dents: i. Funding for vocational guidance ii. National Defense Education Act of 1958 for school­­-based counseling services iii. Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963

Super: Lifespan, Life-Space Theory

looks at how people make career choices rather than just content and conseq­­uences of choices (career choice is a process, not an event). Focuses on gathering info over time. We partic­­ipate in lots of different roles within our lives. The more he studied roles (in US and other cultures) the more he realized they developed and varied. This theory is especially helpful during transition phases as it seeks occupation in relation to everything else.
Key concepts of Stages of growth Life-c­­areer rainbow model shows 5 life stages in relati­­onship to age ranges Self-c­­on­c­e­pt­­/co­­ng­r­uence: it’s not a one and done career decision ladder, we are always adapting and making choices and we do this based on our unders­­ta­nding of ourselves. Congruence is how well someone matches their job to match their self-c­­on­cept. Roles: homemaker, worker, citizen, leisurite, student, child. People often partic­­ipate in multiple roles at the same time. Career maturity is readiness to engage in task at certain age.

Holland: Theory of Vocational Person­alities

focused on both what people were good at and what they liked doing. Came up with six person­­ality types (RIASEC­-Re­ali­stic, Invest­­ig­a­tive, Artistic, Social, Enterp­­ri­sing, Conven­­tional) and corres­­po­nding enviro­­nm­ents. Everyone has some degree of interest in each of the six types.
Key concepts: i.Congruence: fit between indivi­­dual’s type and enviro­­nment in which they work. ii.Consis­­te­n­c­y/­­con­­ti­guity: highest two or three scores on the different types and examining the positions of them on the model. A person with realistic interested and strong social interests is less consistent relative to those whose strong interests are realistic and invest­­ig­a­tive. The more consistent persons are in their types, the more predic­­table they are to the occupation in which they will find success and satisf­­ac­tion. iii.Differ­­en­t­i­ation: assessed by looking at the size of the differ­­ences in the highest versus lowest of the six type scores. The greater the magnitude of the differ­­ence, the more likely one can make an accurate prediction of what career choice a person will find satisf­­ac­tory. Persons with flat profiles might find satisf­­action in a very wide range of careers or not find satisf­­action in any career. iv.Identity: clarity of one’s goals, interests, and talents. Measured by a separate scale (Vocat­­ional Preference Inventory or Self-D­­ir­ected Search)

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)

attempt to concep­­tu­alize the career develo­­pment of indivi­­duals in a holistic and dynamic manner
Developed to explain relati­­onship among: i. Develo­­pment of interests ii. Choice of educat­­ional and career options iii. Perfor­­mance and persis­­tence in educat­­io­n­a­l/­­voc­­at­ional realm

Gottfr­edson: Circum­scr­iption & Compromise

Addresses how public, social aspects of self affect career develo­­pment including sex roles, social class, race/e­­th­n­i­city, indivi­­du­a­l­is­­tic­­/c­o­l­le­­cti­­vistic orient­­ation, values, need for power/­­pr­e­s­tige, etc. Occupa­­tional choice occurs by elimin­­ating negative choices rather than selecting positive ones: We eliminate choices based on social aspects of self & We relinquish most preferred altern­­atives for less compatible but more accessible ones. Circum­­sc­r­i­ption: elimin­­ating negative choices.

Schlos­sberg: Adult Career Develo­pment Transition

3 kinds of transi­­tions: antici­­pated transi­­tions (caused by expected events that occur as part of one’s life cycle), unanti­­ci­pated transi­tions (caused by life events that are not predic­­table, not planned for), and nonevent transi­tions (caused by events that were antici­­pated and planned for but that did not happen)
Factors that influence how indivi­­duals experience transi­­tions: situation, self, support, coping strate­­gies.

Krumboltz: Happen­stance Learning Theory (HLT)

Describes nine factors that influence indivi­­dual’s behavior: genetics, learning experi­­ences, instru­­mental learning experi­­ences (indiv­­iduals observe their own behavior and its conseq­­ue­n­ces), associate learning experi­­ences (indiv­­iduals observe behavior of others), enviro­­nm­ental conditions and events, impact of parents and caretakes, peer groups, structured educat­­ional settings indivi­­duals experience while growing up,
imperfect world in which we live provides opport­­un­ities for some and not for others. Aka everything impact our learning. Behavior is a product of learning experi­­ences from both planned and unplanned situat­­ions. Goal is to help clients take actions to achieve more satisfying career and personal lives.
To do this we: i. Normalize anxiety, explain goal of CC, encourage clients to be open minded, flexible, comfor­­table with ambiguity ii. Recognize client concerns as just a starting point and explor­­ation iii. Explore clients’ past experi­­ences with unplanned events iv. Recognize potential opport­­un­ities v. Help client overcome blocks to action

Inters­ection of Career and Person­al-­Emo­tional

Ecological model: human behavior results from the ongoing, dynamic intera­­ction between the person and the enviro­­nment. The larger culture, operating as a macros­­ystem, perpet­­uates career myths and stereo­­types that are related to race and gender and instit­­ut­i­o­na­­lizes discri­­mi­n­ation
Bronfe­­nb­r­e­nner’s (1922) model identifies 4 subsystems that impact behavior: micros­­ystem, mesosy­­stem, ecosystem, macros­­ystem. Career behavior is determined by interr­­el­a­t­io­­nship between subsystems in a larger system.
Postmodern Models: Constr­­uc­t­i­vi­sm ­int­ernal processes of how people view self, others, world and Social constr­­uc­t­ivism how social factors shape interp­­re­t­a­tions.

Career Counseling Intake

Life Career Assessment (LCA): Designed to focus on clients’ levels of functi­­oning in their life career develo­­pment and the intern­­al­/­e­xt­­ernal dynamics that may be involved.
4 major sections: career assess­­ment, typical day, strengths and obstacles, summary
LCA Career Assessment: Work experience likes/­dis­lik­es/­tas­ks/­des­cri­ption, Education or training progress and concerns likes/­dis­lik­es/­goa­ls/­(in­)co­nsi­ste­ncies Relati­ons­hip­s/f­rie­ndships hobbie­s/f­riend qualities
LCA Strengths and Obstacles: Three main strengths: resources at own disposal; what do resources do for clients Three main obstacles: related to strengths; related to themes
LCA Typical Day: purpose is to discover how clients organize and live their daily lives. Depend­ent­-in­dep­endent: relies on others; insists on someone else making decision. Each of these opposite pairs can be considered a person­ality dimension. At least two should be examined System­ati­c-s­pon­taneous: stable and routine; persistent and attentive
LCA Summary: Agree on life themes, Use client’s own words, Relate to goal setting or problem solving
Career­­-i­n­-­Cu­­lture Interview (CiCI) is a flexible interview protocol designed for the career intake interview within a cross-­­cu­l­tural context.
CiCl Intera­­cting domains of client career develo­­pme­nt: a. Narrative & relati­­onship: client as an indivi­­dual. b. Self-view and self-e­­ff­i­cacy: self-a­­pp­r­aisal of client’s life and work skills c. Culture, Religion, Family: immigr­­ation history, language prefer­­ences, religious and cultural backgr­­ound, and family values and expect­­ations -Genogram d. Commun­­it­y­/­Larger Society: influe­­ntial community organi­­za­tions & role models e. Barriers & oppres­­sion: intrap­­er­sonal (e.g. lack of awareness or specific skills) and interp­­er­sonal (e.g. racism, sexism) barriers to career develo­­pment.
VIA: Goal is to help clients identify their top personal strengths and to explore how they can use their strengths in their career develo­pme­nt/­exp­lor­ation process and to their careers themse­lves. Can be partic­ularly helpful for clients who need to think of their strengths for interv­iews.
O*NET: excellent resource to find out additional inform­ation about occupa­tions.


SII (Strong Interest Inventory): Goal is to provide clients with inform­­ation about their Holland type (areas of career interests) and to expose clients to possible careers that might fit their interests. #1 thing to commun­­icate is that nothing in this assessment tells you what you should or should not be – it just tells you how similar your interests are to people who are in these occupa­­tions and like them Different sections: General Occupa­­tional Themes, Basic Interest Scales, Occupa­­tional Scales, Personal Style Scales, Profile Summary, College Profile, Interp­­retive Report).
MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator): Goal is to provide clients with inform­­ation about their MBTI type and to expose clients to possible careers that might fit their person­­ality. Test is about your prefer­­ences, not about determ­­ining person­­ality. Note that our prefer­­ences can change overtime based on life experi­­ences. Different sections: E vs I, S vs I, T vs F, J v P

Intake Techniques

Lifeline: help clients identify patterns
Genograms: Help clients understand their family and cultures signif­­icant influences in their lives in regard to work.
Visual­­iz­ation: Relaxation exercise. One day, 5 years in the future, what does your ideal workday look like? Hours? Co-wor­­kers? Tasks? Etc.?
Card Sorts Skills, Values, Strengths (Skills Card Sort, Career Values Card Sort, Positive Personal Qualities Card Sort)

Integr­ating Inform­ation

Integr­­ating Inform­­ation: Help clients gather inform­­ation, develop plans of action, and make decisions about their career concerns.
Techni­­ques: Future day fantasy visual­­iz­a­tion, Write personal & career mission statement, Create “Ideal Positions” portfolio, Help clients create action plans and set SMART goals
Using social media in career counse­­ling: help clients create an online presence
Termin­­ation: ideally happens because goals have been met Ideal process: review content & process, emphasize client’s strengths, evaluate what went well, what didn’t – get feedback, explore feelings about ending, discuss next steps.

Divers­ity­/Di­ffe­rence in Careers

Veterans: reentry to civilian life may be difficult
Resist­­ance: May involve fear of counse­­ling, taking respon­­si­b­i­lity, sabotaged commun­­ic­a­tion, making excuses, irrational beliefs, faulty inform­­ation process, overt physical behaviors, etc.
Psycho­­lo­gical Distress Clients: Psycho­­lo­g­i­cally health­­y/­ready to transi­­tion comfor­table with their career decision making, High psycho­­lo­gical distre­­ss­/­m­od­­erate decide­­dness often had difficulty with goals & stability, dependent on others, goal is to reduce stress, Psycho­­lo­g­i­cally health­­y/but undecided ready to make career transi­tion. Need info about self and world of work, High psycho­­lo­gical distre­­ss­/­u­nd­­ecided Help client reduce distress, help them achieve satisfying life goals
Unempl­­oyment: help client reach acceptance stage. Reduce guilt, negative thoughts, deal with situation
Sexual orient­­ation: LGB affirm­­ative counse­­ling: know about LGB issues, assess own social­­iz­a­t­io­­n/b­­iases around sexual orient­­ation.
Criminal Offenders: generally, 3 goals identi­­fied: public safety, relapse preven­­tion, rehabi­­li­t­a­tion. Reentry planning begins at incarc­­er­a­tion.

Career Counseling for Empowe­rment

Gender: Critical Feminist Approach involves 5 Cs: Collab­­or­ation between client & counselor 2. Recogn­­iz­i­n­g/­­using client’s competence (help her develop new skills, recognize her strengths) 3. Keeping as central context of client's life (all levels of ecological model) 4. Develop own and client’s critical consci­­ou­sness (power analysis; how power is manife­­st­e­d­/e­­xpr­­essed and reflec­­tion) 5. Help women find community for suppor­­t/­e­m­po­­werment Men’s Career Develo­pment has been socialized to be indepe­ndent, self-s­uff­icient, tough, achiev­ement oriented, compet­itive. Assess: questi­onn­aires for adherence to male gender norms and provide psycho­edu­cation on mascul­ini­ty/­ability to discuss feelings
Transg­­ender: very little legal protection for TG indivi­­duals
Social Justice: Advoca­­cy­/­E­mp­­owe­­rment at the Individual Level: Provide culturally competent career counseling & Help clients identify barriers to career success and brainstorm way to overcome barriers Community Collab­­or­ation: Identify factors that support clients’ career develo­­pment inform commun­­ities about them and develop alliances with groups working for change Systems Advocacy: Identify specific factors impacting specific develo­­pment & Advocate for programs that focus specif­­ically on issues of diversity and break down occupa­­tional stereo­­types. Create a supportive atmosphere in own work place.

Career Roles

Doctoral Programs: Counselor Education and Superv­­ision Ph.D. or Ed.D.: Training to teach, supervise, and do research about counseling
School Psychology Ph.D. or Psy.D about children, youth, and families, with a focus on the schooling process. Training to do psycho­­lo­gical testing.
Counse­­li­n­g­/C­­linical Psychology Ph.D., Psy.D., or Ed.D: about psycho­­logy; psycho­­lo­gical testing. Counseling Psychology: focused on people's functi­­oning personally and in relati­­on­ships with focus on typical life stresses, less of an emphasis on psycho­­pa­t­h­ology. More focus on work and career related concerns. Clinical Psychology: more focused on psycho­­pa­t­h­ology, neurop­­at­h­o­logy, neuropsych testing.